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THE LEWIS CARROLL SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA 



NUMBER 70 WINTER 2002 



Vovpnl Mnht^: Cljt Crans(lator's( ^rt 



MORS lABROCHII 

COESPER erat: tunc LUBRICILES ULTRAVIA CIRCUM 
URGEBANT GYROS GIMBICULOSQUE TOPHI: 
MOESTENUl VISAE BOROGOVIDES IRE MEATU: 
ET PROFUGI GEMITUS EXGRABUERE RATHAE. 

O FUGE lABROCHIUM, SANGUIS MEUS! ILLE RECURVIS 
UNGUIBUS, ESTQUE AVIDIS DENTIBUS ILLE MINAX. 
UBUBAE FUGE CAUTUS AVIS VIM, GNATE! NEQUE UNQUAM 
FAEDARPAX CONTRA TE FRUMIOSUS EAT! 

VORPALI GLADIO IUVENIS succingitur: HOSTIS 
MANXUMUS AD MEDIUM QUAERITUR USQUE DIEM: 
lAMQUE VIA FESSO, SED PLURIMA MENTE PREMENTl, 
TUMTUMIAE FRONDISSUASERAT UMBRA MORAM. 

CONSILIA INTERDUM STETIT EGNIA MENTE REVOLVENS: 
AT GRAVIS IN DENSA FRONDE SUSUFFRUS ERAT, 
SPICULAQUE EX OCULIS lACIENTlS FLAMMEA, TULSCAM 
PER SILVAM VENIT BURBUR lABROCHIl! 

VORPALI, SEMEL ATQUE ITERUM COLLECTUS IN ICTUM, 
PERSNICUrr GLADIO PERSNACUITQUE PUER: 
DEINDE GLAUMPHATUS, SPERNENS INFORME CADAVER, 
HORRENDUM MONSTRI RETTULIT IPSE CAPUT. 

VICTOR I ABROCHll, SPOLIIS INSIGNIS OPIMIS 
RURSUS IN AMPLEXUS, O RADIOSE, MEOS! 

o FRA8IOSE dies! CALLO clamateque calla! 

VIX POTUIT LAETUSCHORTICULARE PATER. 

COESPER erat: TUNC LUBRICILES ULTRAVIA CIRCUM 
URGEBANT GYROS GIMBICULOSQUE TOPHI; 
MOESTENUl VISAE BOROGOVIDES IRE MEATU; 
ET PROFUGI GEMITUS EXGRABUERE RATHAE. 

GABERBOCCHUM 

HORA ADERAT BRILIGI. NUNC ET SLYTHAEIA TOVA 
PLURIMA GYRABANT GYMBOLITARE VABO; 
ET BOROGOVORUM MIMZEBANT UNDIQUE FORMAE, 
MOMIFERIQUE OMNES EXGRABUERE RATHI. 

"cave, GABERBOCCHUM MONEOTIBI, NATE CAVENDUM 
(UNGUIBUS ILLE RAPIT. DENTIBUS ILLE NECAT.) 
ET FUGE JUBBUBBUM, QUO NON INFESTIOR ALES, 
ET BANDERSNATCHAM, QUAE FREMIT USQUE, CAVE. 

ILLE AUTEM GLADIUM VORPALEM CEPIT, ET HOSTEM 
MANXONIUM LONGA SEDULITATE PETIT; 
TUM SUB TUMTUMMI REQUIESCENS ARBORIS UMBRA 
STABAT TRANQUILLUS, MULTA ANIMO MEDITANS. 

DUM REQUIESCEBAT MEDITANS UFFISHIA, MONSTRUM 
PRAESENS ECCE! OCULIS CUI FERA FLAMMA MICAT, 
IPSEGABERBOCCHUS DUMETA PER HORRIDASIFFLANS 
IBAT, ET HORRENDUM BURBULIABAT lENS! 

TER, QUATER, ATQUE ITERUM CITE VORPALISSIMUS ENSIS 
SNICSNACCANS PENITUS VISCERA DISSECUIT. 
EXANIMUM CORPUS LINQUENS CAPUT ABSTULIT HEROS 
QUOCUMGALUMPHAT MULTA, EXDMUMQUE REDIT. 

"tune GABERBOCCHUM POTUISTI, NATE, NECARE? 
BEMISCENS PUER! AD BRACHIA NOSTRA VENI. 
O FRABIUSCE DIES! ITERUMQUE CALOQUE CALAQUE 
LAETUS EO" UT CHORTLET CHORTLA SUPERBA SENEX. 

HORA ADERAT BRILIGI. NUNC ET SLYTHAEIA TOVA 
PLURIMA GYRABANT GYMBOLITARE VABO; 
ET BOROGOVORUM MIMZEBANT UNDIQUE FORMAE, 
MOMIFERIQUE OMNES EXGRABUERE RATHI. 



JUBAVOCUS 

TORRIDA NONA FERE EST; TRIVIORUM IN GRAMINE TOVES 
GYRANTESTEREBRANT,GREX AGILUBRIS, HUMUM; 
STENT BOROGOVl HABITU TRINUTI SOLARIA lUXTA, 
VOCE VAGAECURRUNT MUBILIENTE RATAE. 

lUBAVOCUM, FILI,CAVE FORMIDABILE MONSTRUM, 
HORRIDUS ET MALE MORDET ET UNGUE RAPIT; 
lUBIUBA VITANDA EST OMNI RATIONE VOLUCRIS, 
TERRIBILl ET FORMA FRUMEUS HARPIRAPAX. 

VORTALEM GLADIUM DEXTRA TENET ILLE PREHENSUM 
MANXOSAMQUE DIU QUAERIT UBIQUE FERAM; 
DENIQUE TUMTUMMAE REQUIESCIT IN ARBORIS UMBRA 
ET GRAVE SUSCEPTUM MENTE REVOLVIT OPUS. 

PLURIMA DUM STOMACHAX VERSAT, VENIT ECCE TREMENDUS, 

CUI DIRO IGNE MICANT LUMINA, lUBAVOCUS! 

PER NEMORA HORRENDO RUIT UT TELGENTIA FLATU! 

UT REBOANT VOCIS BULBURIENTE SONO! 

"hoc CAPE, ET HOC ITERUM!" SIC ICTIBUS ADIICIT ICTUS 
ET GLADIO CREPITANS TERQUE QUARTERQUE FERIT. 
VULNERIBUS CONFECTA CADIT FERA, ET ILLE QUADRUMPHANS 
CUM CAPITE ABSCISO VICTOR AB HOSTE REDIT. 

"aNNE TUA eat VERO MONSTRUM VIRTUTE SUBACTUM? 
DEM TIBI COMPLEXUS, O RADIOSE PUER!" 

EXALTANS PATER , "euge! Kq^xIk KaXXiota FREMINNAT 

"O lAM I AM PHILACRIS NEC SINE LAUDE DIES!" 

TORRIDA NONA FERE EST; TRIVIORUM IN GRAMINE TOVES 
GYRANTES TEREBRANT, GREX AGILUBRIS, HUMUM; 
STENT BOROGOVl HABITU TRINUTI SOLARIA lUXTA 
VOCE VAGAE CURRUNT MUBILIENTE RATAE. Jet)t"'4'A 

TAETRIFEROCIAS 

HORA COCTAVA PER PROTINIAM TEREMELES 
LIMAGILES TERETANT ET QUOQUE GYRIROTANT; 
SUNT TENUISCOPI MACRILLI; SAEPEQUE VIRCI 
EDOMIPALI ETIAM VOCIBUS ERUDITANT 

"semper faccaveas, mi FILI, TAETRIFEROCEM, 
MORSU QUI LANIAT, UNGUIBUS ET LACERAT! 
TE PROCUL INCURSU VOLUCRIS RECIPE ORBIIUBAT 
DEVITAQUE ITIDEM SILVIRAPUM FRUMIUM! 

DEXTRA VORPALEM GLADIUM TUNC VIBRAT ET EF 
HOSTEM DIRIFICUM QUAERITAT ILLE DIU - 
ARBOREM INERS PROPE TUMTUMI AM ST ANS TUM REQ' 
SECUM PAULISPER RES VARIAS REPUTANS 

DUMQUE MANET, CONCEPT AQUE MENTE SUBARVI A FINI 
TAETTRIFEROX, FLAMMASEICIENS OCULIS, 
PER SILVAM BLATERANS ARGUTAT TURMIDULOSAM, 
ET PROPIUS VENIENS BURBULAT ASSIDUE. 

" HOC cape! ET ID CAPE!" SIC PENITUS PER TAET 
VORPALEM GLADIUM PERNICIENS ADIGIT! 
PROSTRATUM SIC EXANIMUMQUE DEINDE RELINQUIT, 
ET CAPITE ARREPTOCURSIOVANS REVENIT. 

"tune OFFERRE NECEM QUIVISri TAETRIFEROCI? 
TE SINE COMPLECT AR, PRAEHILARIS lUVENIS! 

TEMPus VERO laudificum! dic "euge, triumphe!" 

INGENIO ELATUS LAETITIA FRITULIT. 

HORA COCTAVA PER PROTINIAM TEREMELES 
LIMAGILES TERETANT ET QUOQUE GYRITOTENT; 
SUNT TENUISCOPI MACRILLI; SAEPEQUE VIRCI 
EDOMIPALI ETIAM VOCIBUS ERUDITANT. 



GABROBOCCHIA 

EST brilgum: TOVI SLIMICI 
IN VABO tererotitant; 
BROGOVI SUNT MACRESCULI, 
momi rash STRUGITANT. 

"FUGE GABROBOCCHUM, FILI MI, 
QUI FERO LACERAT MORSU; 
DIFFIDE IUBIUBAE AVI; 
ES PROCUL AB UNGUIMANU!" 

VORPALEM ENSEM EXTULIT; 
HOSTEM QUAESIVIT MANXIMUM - 
TUMTUMI STIRPI ASTITIT, 
ET EXTUDIT CONSILIUM. 

SUBTECTIM CONSULTANTS EO, 
EN, GABROBOCCHUS FLAMMIFER 
EX LUCOSPRINXIT TULGIDO 
PERBULLANS USQUE UGRITER. 

TUM SEMEL, BIS ET ITERUM 
VORPALE FERRUM PUPUGIT: 
NECATI CAPUT EXANIMUM 
CITUMPHANS RETRO RETTULIT. 

"nUM GABROBOCCHUS PERIIT? 
GAUDIFERUM AMPLECTARTE! 
DIES FRABIOUSUS! GRAUSTUS SIt!" 
SUFFREMUIT PRAEHILARE. 

EST BRILGUM: TOVI SLIMICI 
IN VABO TEREROTITANT; 

WI SUNT MACRESCULI, 
ilMI RASTI STRUGITANT. 

lABERVOGAS 

?ERABAT, DUM ROTITANT TOVI 
|[rRES ET TEREBRANT VABEM; 

~RAE SUNT BOROGES, 
<f PS^j5jSi.RATHERRES. 

ru PRAECAVE, O'i'^^S^TE, IABERVOGEM! 
QUAE DENTE MORDET/l^feCAPIT UNGUIBUS! 
JTA lUBElUBRAM VOLUCRE 

CITA FRUMIUM RAPANGUE 

)VORPALEOMANU, 
QUAERE SyiHf//' //'..MA NXOMIUM DIU: 
TUNC ARBOREMADJHl^fc^J QUIEVIT ■ 
STABAT IBI MEDITA(^yT^ro^1PER. 

DUM CELSACERBOSIC ANIMO MANET, 
VENIT lABERVOX, ORBIBUS IGNEIS, 
SILVAM PER ULTUGEM SUSUFLANS, 
ET VENIENS CREPISIBRUDEBAT! 

BISTERQUE! TUXTAX! per medium FERAE 
COR MISIT ENSEM VORPALEUM PUER! 
HANC LIQUIT ENECTAM, FERENSQUE 
TURPE CAPUT REDIIT GALUMPHANS. 

"tune EXSCIDISTI SPONTE IABERVOGEM? 
PRO Ml RENIDENS GNATE, VENI PATRIS 
AD pectus! O PHRABDALE tempus! 
EUGEPAPAX!" HILARECACHINNAT. 

CLARVESPERABAT, DUM ROTITANT TOVI 
LIMOSALACRES ET TEREBRANT VABEM; 
DUM TRISTI MACRAE SUNT BOROGES, 
EGRIBIUNT PROFUGI RATHERRES. 




Gala by the Golden Gate 

On a gorgeous Autumn day, November 2"'', 2002, 
San Francisco played host to a gathering of our Society, 
exactly a decade after our last meeting here. The specific 
lure this time was the extraordinary exhibit "Dreaming in 
Pictures: The Photography of Lewis Carroll", curated by 
Douglas Nickel. The show, a handsomely mounted display 
of about 75 of Dodgson's works, along with an electronic 
facsimile of several albums and an adjunct exhibition called 
"Carroll in Context", has been well-reviewed elsewhere, but 
the chance to walk among his creations certainly was a grand 
treat. 

The celebration actually had begun the day before 
at a Maxine Schaefer Memorial Reading at the Town School 
for Boys. Forty-or-so fourth graders were vastly entertained 
by a reading by Stephanie Lovett and Mark Burstein (Town 
School, class of '64), followed by a fine Q&A, in which 
one of the lads asked about migraines and the /iPF syndrome! 
They seemed delighted with our gifts of the Books of 
Wonder edition of the Adventures. 

Saturday began with a brunch in the sumptuous 
Garden Court of the Palace Hotel, an Edwardian gem of a 
glass-ceilinged garden atrium, which had been completely 
renovated ten years ago to its 1 909 splendor. 




Photo: Alan Tannenbaum 



We then walked to the newly opened Koret 
Education Center at the San Francisco Museum of Modem 
Art, a facility unique in this country in its state-of-the-art 
multimedia display technology, interactive learning re- 
sources and facilities (see www.sfmoma.org/education/ 
edu_inthemuseum_kvec.html). 

The meeting began with some announcements 
from outgoing (in both senses of the term) President Steph- 
anie Lovett, including upcoming meetings (see "Ravings", 
p.22 for details). August then read a tribute to Peter Heath 
(see "In Memoriam", p. 23) and memorial keepsakes were 
distributed. We held our formal election (also in "Ravings"). 

Our first speaker was Koen Lien, lead designer of 
the "Alice's Wonderland" exhibit at the Children's Discovery 
Museum of San Jose. (Thank you, Michael Welch, for 
suggesting him.) San Jose, he reminded us, is a city of one 
million "at the bottom of the bay", presumably in the geo- 
rather than oceanographic sense. The museum draws over 
300,000 visitors annually. See www.cdm.org. 

"Alice's Wonderland: A Most Curious Adventure" 
was the result of an idea by their developers, which was 
ftinded by a grant from the National Science Foundation to 
make an interactive science-based touring exhibition en- 
couraging imaginative play. (The touring schedule is on p. 
4.) Koen took us down the rabbit hole via a slide show — a 
rabbit hole was, in fact, the only way to get into the exhibit! 

This was emphatically an interactive experience, 
both fiin and educational. Some of the exhibits were: 

o The Antipathies — a globe that you could touch, with 

a video display that would then show you exactly 

what was directly through the earth. ("We learned 

that most of the world was made of water," he 

remarked.) 
o Rotating word disks that made "Do cats eat bats" 

permutations ("Do gnats treat hats?") 
o An Ames room of the hall of doorways, with 

distorted perspective 
o A "Mouse's Tale" animation that wiggled like its 

homonym 
o Distorting mirrors 

o A praxinoscope (a Victorian parlour amusement) 
o A video microscope 
o Murals that take you through the story (and a 

zoetrope that brought them to life) 



SHERMAN*S LAGOON / P Toomey 



I'M PSKIHO 

FOR we ^'^ 

CLOCK. 




NO ITS NOT IT'S 
JUST PERMANENTLY 
SET TO 23^ THPJ 
MEANS, TWICE A PAY 
IT'S EXACTLY RI&HT 




AS OPPOSEP TO FILLMORE^ 
FANCY-SCHMANCY ItlATCH. 
miCH IS AUtiAYS 5 
MINUTES FAST... 





o A semi-silvered mirror in which one could see 

one's own face morphing into the Cheshire Cat's 
o A "Tea Party" that demonstrated fluid dynamics 

through experiments 
o A turntable game of the Croquet Ground 
o Finally, a collection of editions of the book which 

children could read or look through 

In all, it seemed like great fiin, and we are pleased 
that children throughout the country will be able to see the 
Museum's fine work. There was next a small feeding frenzy 
as Koen sold t-shirts, pens and keychains (with a movable 
Alice falling down a book-lined well). 

There were about sixty of us, so we next split into 
two groups. One stayed in place to see a film, while the 
other went to "walk-through" 
the exhibit with the curator 
("the Nickel tour"). An hour or 
so later, the groups reversed. 

Andy Malcolm and 
George Pastic have been work- 
ing for several years on this 
film, shot in digital video, and 
running about 24 minutes. The 
last months have been an extra- 
ordinary crunch of late-nights 
working on this "labor of love". 
It was described as a "work in 
progress", and although Andy, 
like all artists, can only see 
what remains to be done, the 

rest of us were very much en- ©Children's Discovery 

chanted by it. This was its "world premiere"! 

The film was shot on the proverbial shoestring, the 
primary locations being "my friend's garage", the Ontario 
countryside and Trinity College of the University of Toronto, 
which looks a great deal like an Oxford college. This 
description may belie both the look of the film and the 
fanatical quest for authenticity that drove the filmmakers 
to attend antique sales, to build their ovm camera as an exact 
replica of Dodgson's, to take a course in collodion 
photography, and to reconstruct his sitting-room and dark- 
rooms to the smallest detail. Almost all the words in the 
film are CLD's (except a Bible quote), and it is all done in 
voiceovers. There is no spoken dialogue. The pace is lei- 
surely, Victorian. 

"Sincerely Yours, Lewis Carroll" begins with Dod- 
gson's musings on New Years Eve, 1 855, having just secured 
the post of Tutor in Christ Church, and full of misgivings of 
"great talents misapplied". We next see him around two years 
later, still long before the publication of the books that made 
him famous, but at the height of his photographic prowess. 
We are silent witnesses as he thinks about calculus and the 
fourth dimension while sitting in a field of cows; looks 
through a microscope; gazes though his (meticulously 
reconstructed) photographic album; muses on religious 
thoughts in a meadow at sunset; sketches from nature 
(including a frog, a caterpillar, and a mouse); recites poetry; 



and other such tableaux. 

The high point of the film was certainly the 
photographing of the Liddell girls, as they had tea with Miss 
Prickett and a tiny kitten looked down from the branch of a 
tree with a subtle smile on its face. We see Dodgson creating 
the famous shot of the three sisters on the couch which, 
even seen upside down (as the focusing plane of the camera), 
brought goosebumps. Alice herself was also photographed 
alone, and we were privileged to listen in on her musings 
(more of which will be added later). 

"Sincerely Yours, Lewis Carroll" is an exceptional 
production, a sort of time-capsule and glimpse into the mind 
and world of an extraordinary soul. It is not a "movie" with 
plot, dialog, and action; rather, it is a stunning y//w. The 

filmmakers' current plans are 
to excerpt some still frames 
into a book which will be sold 
with a DVD in the back. 

The last presentation 
of the afternoon, Doug Nick- 
el's lecture accompanied by 
slides, took place in the large, 
elegant Phyllis Wattis theater 
and was open to the public. The 
slides he presented were not 
just of Dodgson's photographs, 
but others' as well, and paint- 
ings from the period which 
illuminated the context. Only 
someone as devoted to Dodg- 
MuseumofSan Jose 2002 son's photography as Nickel, 

who has spent several years of his life assembling and 
curating a remarkable exhibition with a superbly produced 
catalog highlighted by his own scintillating essay, could 
begin a lecture with the provocative "Lewis Carroll was, in 
my opinion, one of the biggest losers in the history of the 
medium." 

He continued, "strange as it may seem, I stand 
before you this afternoon to try and make the case for 
Dodgson's photographs, not because of, but rather despite 
the fame of their maker. The aspiration of Dreaming in 
Pictures is precisely this: to take Dodgson's compositions 
seriously as pictures, to ask what they might have meant in 
their original historical and artistic context and to their 
original audiences. For as surprising as it may be, Dodgson's 
passion for photography was recognized in every credible 
biography, from Collingwood in 1898 down to Morton 
Cohen's book of 1995, but nowhere do we find anyone in 
the last hundred years asking what these images were act- 
ually about, what their subjects were, or why their maker 
was so clearly engaged by them. Once we get past the notion 
that photography was a mere pastime for Dodgson and 
acknowledge that he brought the same inventive and complex 
mind to the conception of these works that he brought to 
his other endeavors, we begin to appreciate how meaningftil 
the pictures become, and how th6se meanings taken collect- 
ively reveal different semantic patterns... To put the case 




succinctly, Dodgson's best work is about ideas, not indiv- 
iduals, and if we are going to make any progress towards 
illuminating his achievement as a visual artist we have to try 
to look at it through Victorian eyes rather than our modem 
sensibilities."' 

Readers who wish a greater degree of understanding 
of Nickel's perspective and who were not privileged to hear 
his delightful talk are referred to his essay in the catalog.^ 

The Q&A session of course began with querying 
him about his opening statement. Nickel explained that 
CLD's literary fame so outshone his other accomplishments 
that he was never, until quite recently, taken as seriously as 
a creative photographer as he deserved. Another question 
was about his giving up the art form, which Nickel believes 
was really due in the main to his "having done it all" after 24 
years in the medium, said what he wanted to say, and, con- 
scious of his own mortality, wantingto devote more tune to 
that which he feh Eternity would judge him by: the Sylvie 
and Bruno books. (Posterity has proved him wrong.) 

We next wandered to the nearby Cartoon Art 
Museum for a reception. On the walls in their temporary 
exhibition space was SuperWacky: Animation on Television 
1949-2002, displaying vintage production animation eels, 
drawings and rare painted background art from cartoons, 
historical ("Crusader Rabbit") to the very contemporary 
"Powerpuff Girls". In the exhibit hall were a number of 
pieces of original cartoon art from their permanent 
collection, including one sketch by David Hall for the 
(never-made) Disney production of AW (see KL 68, p.2) 
and a case arranged just for this event displaying "Alice in 
the Comics". One could see pages of Superman, Batman, 
MAD, The Thing, The Flash, Santa Claus Funnies, and so 
on with stories that had used ^Jf -themes or characters. 
There was food and wine aplenty, and conviviality abounded. 
We eventually dispersed, saying goodbye to "Everybody's 
Favorite City", and our guests, who had come from as far 
away as Japan, began to vanish quite slowly, beginning with 




© Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose 2002 

the end of their tails and ending with their grins, which 
remained for a good long time after they had gone. 

1. The exhibit will be at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (Feb.- 
May '03), the International Center for Photography in New York 
(June-Sep. '03), and the Art Institute of Chicago (Oct. '03-Jan. '04). 

2. Dreaming in Pictures, Yale University Press, '02, 0-300-09169-9 




a mo$t ctirious adventure 



October 2002 - 
June 2003 

June 2003 - 
September 2003 

September 2003 
January 2004 

January 2004 - 
September 2004 

January 2005 - 

May 2005 



The Children's Museum 

Boston, MA 

Pittsburgh Children's Museum 

Pittsburgh, PA 

Strong Museum 

Rochester, NY 

Minnesota Children's Museum 

St. Paul, MN 

Young At Art 

Davie, FL 



May 2005 - 
September 2005 

September 2005 
January 2006 

January 2006 - 
May 2006 

May 2006 - 
September 2006 

September 2006 
January 2007 



Port Discovery 

Baltimore, MD 

Children's Museum of Manhattan 

New York, NY 

Western Reserve Historical Society 

Cleveland, OH 

Houston Children's Museum 

Houston, TX 

Chicago Children's Museum 

Chicago, IL 



Latin and Greek Versions of "Jabberwocky": Exercises 
in Laughing and Grief ' 

August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

Few English nonsense verses have been translated 
into as many foreign languages as Lewis Carroll's 
"Jabberwocky", that whimsical poem from the first chapter 
of Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found 
There^. In 1964, Warren Weaver compiled a bibliography 
of translations of the Alice books in which he listed forty- 
two versions of TTLG, that is forty-two translations of 
"Jabberwocky", in some sixteen languages (66-69). During 
the past twenty-three years many more translations have 
appeared (Guiliano 226-27). The large number of trans- 
lations of the Alice books, however, is doubly surprising. 
Carroll's work, and "Jabberwocky" in particular, is very 
English in its language, both real and invented, in its figures 
(consider the St. George motif in the young boy's encounter 
with the Jabberwock), and in its tone. Furthermore, the 
problems of turning "Jabberwocky" into another language 
are prodigious. As Losel observed in his analysis of the 
earliest German translation of AW: 
Lewis Carroll puts the translator into a difficult position. 
He takes language at its word and uncovers secret 
relations between words. A translator requires reliability 
and constructiveness and, at the same time, an attitude 
of aloofiiess to his own product. This precarious balance 
is almost unattainable for a translator of AW; he must 
build up an unconventional world and simultaneously 
undermine it. (76) 

Losel 's observation is even more applicable to the 
nearly understandable unreality of the language of the 
"Jabberwocky" poem. 

After briefly reviewing the origin of "Jabberwocky" 
and offering some dated, but perhaps still meaningful, 
criteria for evaluating the translation of nonsensical works, 
this essay will examine those classical language versions 
of "Jabberwocky" catalogued by Weaver, together with a few 
that escaped his notice, and some published after his 
bibliography. 

I 
"Jabberwocky", as we have it in the first chapter of 
TTLG (published in December 1 87 1 ), was created in at least 
two separate phases. Carroll had published privately the 
initial quatrain — "'Twas brillig. . ." — as "A Stanza of Anglo- 
Saxon Poetry" in 1855 in Misch-Masch, one of the family 
journals he wrote, hand-lettered, and illustrated for his 
brothers and sisters (Collingwood, Picture Book 37). The 
glosses that he added to the fragment's arcane words in 
Misch-Masch do not in every case agree with the inter- 
pretation advanced by Humpty Dumpty, that early master of 
higher criticism who ended his career through an exercise 
in deconstruction, in Chapter 6 of TTLG. For example, 
Carroll gives "gyre" the meaning "to scratch like a dog", 
whereas Humpty Dumpty says it means "to go round and 
round like a gyroscope". Perhaps Humpty's explanation 
reflects his own preoccupation with maintaining his balance. 
Lewis Carroll's nephew and early biographer, Stuart Dodg- 



son Collingwood, proposed the following, obviously erron- 
eous, origin of "Jabberwocky": "the whole poem was com- 
posed while Carroll was staying with his cousins, the Misses 
Wilcox at Whitburn, near Sunderland: 'To while away an 
evening the whole party sat down to a game of verse-making, 
and "Jabberwocky" was [Carroll's] contribution.'" (Life and 
Letters 143). The visit probably occurred in 1855 — the 
relevant diary being missing — but parts of the poem, like 
the Anglo-Saxon stanza, may have been composed before 
then. In any event, the whole poem was not the product of a 
night's verse making. 

As for the word "Jabberwocky", Carroll defined it 
in a rationalizing, after-the-fact manner, in a letter to the 
Fourth-Class of the Girls' Latin School in Boston, who had 
written to Carroll to ask permission to use "The Jabberwock" 
as the title of their school magazine. He included in his reply 
granting permission the following etymology: ". . .the Anglo- 
Saxon word 'wocer' or 'wocor' signifies 'off-spring' or 
'fiiiit'. Taking 'jabber' in its ordinary acceptation of 'excited 
and voluble discussion', this would give the meaning of 'the 
result of much excited discussion'" (Life and Letters 274). 

Aside from pseudo-learned attempts at explaining 
the origin of the work "Jabberwocky", it does seem likely 
that the poem's central idea may have been inspired by "The 
German Shepherd", the English translation of Friedrich 
Heinrich Karl de la Motte Foque's poem published in 1 846 
by Menella Bute Smedley.^ Thematic parallels and a few 
verbal echoes between the two poems argue in favor of "The 
German Shepherd's" influence upon Carroll's "Jabber- 
wocky". Furthermore, Smedley was a cousin of Lewis 
Carroll and the Misses Wilcox, and a cousin whom Carroll 
frequently met. 

The whole question of Smedley's influence is dis- 
cussed by Roger L. Green in the appendix of his revised 
version of the Handbook of the Literature of Rev. C. L. 
Dodgson (Williams and Madan 278-81). 

The meaning of "Jabberwocky" is even more dis- 
puted than its origin, since it obviously had an origin, but 
does not necessarily have a meaning. Carroll's imaginative 
compound words and astute use of syntax have made "Jab- 
berwocky" a classic in the narrow genre of English nonsense 
poetry. Ordinary language word order and inflectional marks, 
such as "s" plurals and adjectives ending in "y", define the 
approximate ftinction of the poem's nonsense words. Words 
with adjective, noun, and verb inflections occur precisely 
where one would expect adjectives, nouns, and verbs to be. 
Nor are the nonsense words patently ridiculous combin- 
ations of unpronounceable syllables like those aberrations 
one finds in science fiction and the comics section of the 
daily newspaper. Alice is thus perfectly justified in assuming 
that "brillig" and the other terms created by Carroll are 
words, but simply ones she does not know." The nonsense 
words conform to the linguistic formula proposed by the 
American linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf for the construction 
of English words (Farb 261-67; 275-76; see also Whorf 
220-32). Needless to say, if the strange words of "Jabber- 
wocky" confuse little Alice, they cause great difficulties 



for those who attempt to translate "Jabberwocky" into 
foreign languages. 

Despite the musings of some twentieth-century 
French critics, there really is no strict canon for translating 
nonsense prose or verse. Mn 1797, however, Alexander 
Fraser Tytler did lay down three rules for translating 
"ludicrous" verse in a work entitled Essay on Principles of 
Translation. Tytler describes a species of verse translation 
that is practiced upon a ludicrous original and seems to be 
regulated by the laws of translation. The ludicrous effect, 
he continues, "is increased when the verse is put into an 
ancient language" (358-59). The laws to be obeyed are: 

I. That the translation should give a complete transcript 
of the ideas of the original work. 

II. That the style and manner of writing should be of the 
same character with that of the origmal. 

III. That the translation should have all the ease of the 
original composition. (15) 

Although translators of "Jabberwocky" may have 
great difficulty in giving a "complete transcript of ideas of 
the original work", they should be able to fulfill the other 
two rules. Let us see. 

One of the earliest translations, and certainly the 
first published one, is the masterly resonant German version 
"Der Jammerwoch" by the Dean of Rochester, Robert Scott. 
"Der Jammerwoch" sounds as though it makes sense of the 
Carrollian nonsense, and therein lies its great appeal. The 
brilliance of Scott is evident, but some credit should be 
given to the particular genius of the German language. Even 
the most arrant nonsense, when translated into German, 
sounds at least authoritative if not always intelligible. 

fEf bcilUg xoax. "^ic fc^Uc^tc CoDcn 
tDicctcn un6 »Bimmcttcn in tDabcri; 
Un6 allec-mfimf igc ^urggoocn 
^u mo^mcn "Kdt^' aufgrabcn. 

"^ic 3^^nc fnicfc^cn, ^Rcallcn Ecot3cn! 
33ct»a^r' DOC 3"H"t>-^05cl. tJOC 
5cumi6fcn San6ccfc^nat3(^cn! 

i^r gciff fcin oorpalf ©c^cocctc^cn ju, 
^c fuc^tc long baf manc^fam' iMng; 
5>ann, ftct)cn6 untcn Cumtum 33aum, 
•fpr an-3U-6cnEcn-fin3. 

Tllf ftan6 cc ticf in "Jlnfead)! ouf, 
^cf 3<^"i"i^co><x^^nf "^ugcn-fcucc 
^ucc^ tulgcn XValb mit tOiffcln Cam 
!Ein burbcln6 Ungc^cucc! 

iBinf, 5a>ci! i^inf, 5>»ci! Un6 6uc(^ un6 6urc^ 
©cin Docpalf ©c^ojcct 3ccfc^nifcc-fc^nfi(f, 
tia blieb cf to6t! iSr, tRopf in 6an6, 
(Bcl^umfig 3og 3urficf. 

Unb fc^lugft 15 u ja ben '^ammetxx>cxi)7 
Umarmc mic^, mcin 33^^m'fcl)ef !Rin6! 
(D 5rcu6cn-^ag! (D 6alloo-©(^lQg! 
i^i: (^octclt fro^-gcfinnt. 



iEf briXlig mat. T)k fc^Uc^tc Cot)cn 
VDirrtcn un6 twimmcUcn in tDabcn; 
Un6 aUcc-mfimfigc SucggoDcn 
5>ie mo^mcn ^2t^' oufgrabcn. 

Scott published his translation under the pseud- 
onym Thomas Chatterton in an article entitled "The Jabber- 
wock Traced to its True Source" in the February 1872 num- 
ber of Macmillan 's Magazine.^ At a seance, the spirit of 
Hermann von Schwindel, a famous Teutonic philologist, had 
revealed to Chatterton that "Jabberwocky" was merely an 
English translation of a German ballad by the author of the 
"Lyar [sic] and Sword". Von Schwindel tapped out the Ur- 
text, which Chatterton dutifully recorded for publication. 
So persuasive was the spoof that even many years later peo- 
ple still occasionally wrote letters to London newspapers 
proudly announcing their discovery of the "true source" of 
the "Jabberwocky" poem documented in an article by Thom- 
as Chatterton. Scott intended his German ballad with its 
accompanying philological and historical commentary 
("Jammerwoch" stands for Napoleon; "Burggoven" for the 
nobility — a pun on Burggrafen, etc.) to be a parody both of 
Ossianic poetry and of the reprehensible tendency of some 
British scholars to consider Deutsche Wissenschaft as the 
sole model of scholarly method. A few improvements, in 
the text, however, might be suggested: schlichten for 
schlichte in line 1; im for in, in lines 2 and 26; and unter 'm 
for unten in line W; but not am Denken as Williams and 
Madan falsely correct line 12 (202). 

Carroll requested a classical Greek "Jabberwocky" 
translation from Scott to complement Scott's German 
version and the admirable Latin one he had received (which 
we shall discuss below). Scott refiased for unknown reasons 
(he was clearly able to draft a Greek version, being a co- 
editor of the unabridged Oxford Greek-English Lexicon). 
A published Greek version did not appear until decades later. 
From Carroll's letters to his publisher, we know he was avidly 
interested in furthering translations of his children's 
literature (Nowell-Smith 71-77); and the idea of translating 
"Jabberwocky" into classical languages evidently also 
appealed to his peculiarly donnish sense of humor. 

n 

Augustus Arthur Vansittart, a fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, composed the first known Latin 
translation of "Jabberwocky" in a room at Trinity on March 
10, 1872. His "Mors labrochii" is probably the Latin poem 
Carroll had in mind when he wrote to Scott for a Greek 
translation. Classics teachers at the university in ante- 
xeroxian nineteenth-century England often had copies of 
their prose and verse translations privately printed and 
distributed to their students as translation models. Nine 
years after it was composed, Oxford University Press printed 
an edition of Vansittart's "Mors labrochii" for private 
circulation. This version displays wonderfiil fidelity to the 
original, as Collingwood noted in The Life and Letters of 
Lewis Carroll, and overall may well be the best of the Latin 
versions (144). 



Mors labrochii 

Coesper erat: tunc lubriciles ultravia circum 
Urgebant gyros gimbiculosque tophi: 
Moestenui visae borogovides ire meatu: 
Et profugi gemitus exgrabuere rathae. 

O fuge labrochium, sanguis meus! Ille recurvis 
Unguibus, estque avidis dentibus ille minax. 
Ububae fuge cautus avis vim, gnate! Neque unquam 
Faedarpax contra te frumiosus eat! 

Vorpali gladio iuvenis succingitur: hostis 
Manxumus ad medium quaeritur usque diem: 
lamque via fesso, sed plurima mente prementi, 
Tumtumiae frondis suaserat umbra moram. 

Consilia interdum stetit egnia mente revolvens: 
At gravis in densa fronde susuffrus erat, 
Spiculaque ex oculis iacientis flammea, tulscam 
Per silvam venit burbur labrochii! 

Vorpali, semel atque iterum coUectus in ictum, 
Persnicuit gladio persnacuitque puer: 
Deinde glaumphatus, spemens informe cadaver, 
Horrendum monstri rettulit ipse caput. 

Victor labrochii, spoliis insignis opimis 
Rursus in amplexus, o radiose, meos! 
O frabiose dies! CALLO clamateque CALLA! 
Vix potuit laetus chorticulare pater. 

Coesper erat: tunc lubriciles ultravia circum 
Urgebant gyros gimbiculosque tophi; 
Moestenui visae borogovides ire meatu; 
Et profugi gemitus exgrabuere rathae. 

"Mors labrochii" betrays in its title the central ac- 
tion of the poem. The whole poem, in elegiac couplets, 
flows smoothly with its blending of portmanteau words, 
transliterations, and brilliant inventions such as "egnia 
mente" for "in uffish thought", which presumably draws 
"egnia" from a truncated form of segnis, meaning sluggish, 
just as "uffish" might be derived from muffish. The meaning 
of labrochus, however, is puzzling. The Latin adjective 
brochus means "projecting" or "threatening" and is used by 
Lucilius to describe teeth. If that is the root Vansittart 
intended, it would leave la as a truncated form of the English 
Jabber. This is the problem one encounters in trying to 
determine the roots. 

How should the archaic English words such as 
"gyre" and "whiffling" be translated into Latin? By archaic 
Latin forms, by Hellenisms, or by Greek terms transliterated 
in the Roman alphabet? How are the nonsense words to be 
construed? As portmanteau words with their halves trans- 
lated accordingly and then combined? Vansittart does create 
some portmanteau words, but what can be done with the 
delightful, but to the translator troublesome, "vorpal"? Is 
not vorpalis, a transliteration rather than a translation, the 
only possibility? Carroll offers no clue to its meaning. But 
the commentators on "Jabberwocky" have been ingenious. 
Alexander L. Taylor thinks "vorpal" was derived from the 
words verbal and gospel by selection of a letter alternately 
from each word (81). Eric Partridge finds the origin in a 
combination of parts of voracious and narwhal (187; see 
also Sewell 120). Unfortunately, these and other clever 



conjectures cannot be demonstrated with certainty. We are 
left with "vorpal" or "vorpalis". 

Vansittart does provide a few scholia in his pub- 
lished "Mors labrochii". "Coesper" is, he explains, derived 
from coena and vesper, and thus means, literally, evening- 
dinner, that is "-the time of broiling dinner, i.e., at the close 
of the afternoon". His "lubriciles" combines lubricus and 
gracilis to render rather well the components of "slithy": 
slimy and lithe. The phrase "sanguis meus" Vansittart surely 
borrowed from Vergil's "proice Tela / manu, sanguis meus" 
(j€neid 6.835). And "spoliis insignis opimis" echoes 
Vergil's "ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis ingreditur 
victorque" (/Eneid 6. S56). These words, spoken by Aeneas's 
father, parallel the praise offered by the father of the slayer 
of the Jabberwock. Finally, "informe cadaver" may stem 
from Vergil's "pedibus informe cadaver protrahittir" {/Eneid 
8.264). Vansittart knew his Latin and understood how to turn 
it to the service of nonsense. 

Hassard Dodgson, CLD's uncle and Master in the 
Court of Common Pleas, composed the next published Latin 
version of "Jabberwocky". He had been an Ireland Scholar 
and in his early years studied Latin and Greek verse 
composition. His translation was never published during his 
lifetime and appeared first posthumously in 1899 in 
Collingwood's Lewis Carroll Picture Book (364). 

"Jabberwocky" Rendered into Latin Elegiacs 

Hora aderat briligi. Nunc et Slythaeia Tova 
Plurima gyrabant gymbolitare vabo; 
Et Borogovorum mimzebant undique formae, 
Momiferique omnes exgrabuere Rathi. 

"Cave, Gaberbocchum moneo tibi, nate cavendum 
(Unguibus ille rapit. Dentibus ille necat.) 
Et fuge Jubbubbum, quo non infestior ales, 
Et Bandersnatcham, quae fremit usque, cave. 

Ille autem gladium vorpalem cepit, et hostem 
Manxonium longa sedulitate petit; 
Tum sub tumtummi requiescens arboris umbra 
Stabat tranquillus, multa animo meditans. 

Dum requiescebat meditans uffishia, monstrum 
Praesens ecce! oculis cui fera flamma micat. 
Ipse Gaberbocchus dumeta per horrida sifflans 
Ibat, et horrendum burbuliabat iens! 

Ter, quater, atque iterum cite vorpalissimus ensis 
Snicsnaccans penitus viscera dissecuit. 
Exanimum corpus linquens caput abstulit heros 
Quocum galumphat multa, domumque redit. 

"Tune Gaberbocchum potuisti, nate, necare? 
Bemiscens puer! ad brachia nostra veni. 
O frabiusce dies! iterumque caloque calaque 
Laetus eo" ut chortlet chortla superba senex. 

Hora aderat briligi. Nunc et Slythaeia Tova 
Plurima gyrabant gymbolitare vabo; 
Et Borogovorum mimzebant undique formae, 
Momiferique omnes exgrabuere Rathi. 

Elegiac couplets are better suited to render the 
English ballad form than many other classical meters. But, 
unfortunately, this translation is too much of a word-for- 
word rendering rather than an unreal translation of the 



English nonsense into Latin nonsense. The line "Momifer- 
ique omnes exgrabuere Rathi" (and all the Raths, bearing 
themselves solemnly, cried out), however, strikes me as 
rather fitting. The word "mome", taken in the sense of 
solemn, Dodgson translates with an invented compound mo- 
miferique incorporating the root of the Latin word momen- 
tum meaning a matter of weight or importance. The other 
nonsense and obsolete words simply are given appropriate 
Latin grammatical inflectional endings, and that is why 
Dodgson's lines lack the imaginative force of Vansittart's 
version. Dodgson, like Vansittart, does incorporate some 
borrowings from the Roman poets in his lines. "Dumeta per 
horrida" (through the wild-rough thickets) is a fine peri- 
phrasis for "through the tulgey wood" and echoes Horace's 
"et horridi dumeta Silvani" (Carmina 3,29,23). And his "ter, 
quater, atque iterum" in line 7 perhaps should call to mind 
Vergil's "terque quaterque manu pectus percussit" (i^neid 
12. 155). But the ideas of "Jabberwocky", such as they are, 
have been clothed in schoolboyish Latin; the ease and spirit 
of the original cannot be discerned m Dodgson's translation. 
More mventive than Dodgson's exercise in making 
"Jabberwocky" Latin is the "Jubavocus" of Hubert Digby 
Watson, published in his little volume More English 
Rhymes with Latin Renderings in 1937 (3). The translator, 
a scholar of Harrow School and Balliol College, Oxford, 
entered the Indian Civil Service and retired with the rank of 
Deputy Commissioner in 1919. In his later years he pub- 
lished a brilliant Latin translation of Carroll's The Hunting 
of the Snark titled Venatio Snarcis, but his Latin "Jabber- 
wocky" is an even better piece of work. 
Jubavocus 

Torrida nona fere est; triviorum in gramine toves 
Gyrantes terebrant, grex agilubris, humum; 
Stent borogovi habitu trinuti solaria iuxta. 
Voce vagae currant mubiliente ratae. 

lubavocum, fill, cave formidabile monstrum, 
Horridus et male mordet et ungue rapit; 
lubiuba vitanda est omni ratione volucris, 
Terribili et forma frumeus Harpirapax. 

Vortalem gladium dextra tenet ille prehensum 

Manxosamque diu quaerit ubique feram; 

Denique tumtummae requiescit in arboris umbra 

Et grave susceptum mente revolvit opus. 

Plurima dum stomachax versat, venit ecce tremendus, 

Cui diro igne micant lumina, Jubavocus! 

Per nemora horrendo ruit ut telgentia flatu! 

Ut reboant vocis bulburiente sono! 

"Hoc cape, et hoc iterum!" sic ictibus adiicit ictus 
Et gladio crepitans terque quarterque ferit. 
Vulneribus confecta cadit fera, et ille quadrumphans 
Cum capite absciso victor ab hoste redit. 

"Anne tua eat vero monstrum virtu te subactum? 
Dem tibi complexus, o radiose puer!" 
Exaltans pater , "Euge! KaXcc)<? KaXXiata freminnat 
"O iam iam philacris nee sine laude dies!" 

Torrida nona fere est; triviorum in gramine toves 
Gyrantes terebrant, grex agilubris, humum; 
Stent borogovi habitu trinuti solaria iuxta 
Voce vagae currunt mubiliente ratae. 



Again the meter is elegiac distichs. As for the 
difficuh words, Watson copes in several ways. In some cases 
he translates into Latin the definition of the nonsense word 
provided by Carroll or by Humpty Dumpty. Thus "brillig" is 
rendered by "torrida nona" — ^the torrid third hour before 
sunset — because "brillig" means, according to Carroll, "the 
time of broiling dinner, i.e, the close of the afternoon" 
(Gardner 191). "Slithy", a compound of slimy and lithe, 
becomes in Latin "agilubris" probably from agilis meaning 
nimble or lithe and lubricus meaning slippery and perhaps 
by far extension slimy. By simple transliteration Watson 
makes borogoves "borogovi". And he created neologisms; 
"mubiliente" is hard to explain otherwise. Finally, he resorts 
to Greek for the dramatic "Callooh! Callayl": KaXd)<r 
KaXXioxa, and fittingly so. 

Almost fifty years after the appearance of Watson's 
Latin "Jabberwocky", Clive Harcourt Carruthers, who had 
already translated AW into Latin, published Aliciae Per 
Speculum Transitus in 1968. Carruthers, a former Rhodes 
Scholar at Oxford, was then Professor Emeritus of Classical 
Languages at McGill University in Canada. He provides two 
versions of "Jabberwocky" in his translation: "Taetrifer- 
ocias" in Chapter 1, and "Gabrobocchia" in an appendix. I 
know of no other translator who has published two com- 
pletely different Latin versions of "Jabberwocky". 
Taetriferocias 

Hora coctava per protiniam teremeles 
Limagiles teretant et quoque gyrirotant; 
Sunt tenuiscopi macrilli; saepeque virci 
Edomipali etiam vocibus eruditant. 

"Semper fac caveas, mi fili, Taetriferocem, 
Morsu qui laniat, unguibus et lacerat! 
Te procul incursu volucris recipe orbiiubatae, 
Devitaque itidem silvirapum frumium!" 

Dextra vorpalem gladium tunc vibrat et effert: 
Hostem dirificum quaeritat ille diu - 
Arborem iners prope tumtumiam stans tum requiescit, 
Secum paulisper res varias reputans. 

Dumque manet, conceptaque mente subarvia fingit, 

Taetriferox, flammas eiciens oculis. 

Per silvam blaterans argutat turmidulosam, 

Et propius veniens burbulat assidue. 

"Hoc cape! Et id cape!" Sic penitus per Taetriferocem 
Vorpalem gladium pemiciens adigit! 
Prostratum sic exanimumque deinde relinquit, 
Et capite arrepto cursiovans revenit. 

"Tune offerre necem quivisti Taetriferoci? 
Te sine complectar, praehilaris iuvenis! 
Tempus vero laudificum! Die "Euge, triumphe!" 
Ingenio elatus laetitia fritulit. 

Hora coctava per protiniam teremeles 
Limagiles teretant et quoque gyritotent; 
Sunt tenuiscopi macrilli; saepeque virci 
Edomipali etiam vocibus eruditant. 

Carruthers' first version, yet another in elegiacs, 
is neither as creative, I believe, as Vansittart's nor as 
disappointingly literal as Hassard Dodgson's. Here too the 
meanings glossed for the nonsense words by Carroll form 



8 



the basis upon which a comparable Latin nonsense work is 
created. "Brillig", even more literally than in Watson's 
version, appears per definitionem "hora coctava". Carruthers 
turns "wabe" into "protinia" based on Alice's own exegesis 
in her conversation with Humpty Dumpty. "Vorpalem", the 
accusative singular case of "vorpalis", is an unimaginative 
third declension adjective. The title of the poem, however, 
"Taetriferocias", combines taeter, i.e., hideous, with 
ferocia, i.e., savagery, in a portmanteau fashion worthy of 
Carroll himself Here is Carruthers' second try. 
Gabrobocchia 

Est brilgum: tovi slimici 

In vabo tererotitant; 

Brogovi sunt macresculi, 

Momi rasti strugitant. 

"Fuge Gabrobocchum, fill mi. 
Qui fero lacerat morsu; 
Diffide lubiubae avi; 
Es procul ab Unguimanu!" 

Vorpalem ensem extulit; 
Hostem quaesivit manximum - 
Tumtumi stirpi astitit, 
Et extudit consilium. 

Subtectim consultante eo. 
En, Gabrobocchus flammifer 
Ex luco sprinxit tulgido 
PerbuUans usque ugriter. 

Turn semel, bis et iterum 
Vorpale ferrum pupugit: 
Necati caput exanimum 
Citumphans retro rettulit. 

"Num Gabrobocchus periit? 
Gaudiferum amplectar te! 
Dies frabiousus! Graustus sit!" 
Suffremuit praehilare. 

Est brilgum: tovi slimici 
In vabo tererotitant; 
Brogovi sunt macresculi, 
Momi rasti strugitant. ( 1 32-33) 

In this alternate version Carruthers adopts the 
rhymed accentual rhythm of Medieval Latin verse. The rapid 
movement of the eight- or nine-syllable lines with their 
regular rhymes more closely approximates the ballad form 
of "Jabberwocky" than the elegiac couplets do. 

The only extant version of "Jabberwocky" in Alcaics 
comes from George P. Strugnell, a solicitor in Coburg, 
Australia, who composed his unpublished "labervogas" many 
years ago. He has kindly given me permission to print his 
excellent Horatian version of "Jabberwocky". 
labervogas 

Clarvesperabat, dum rotitant Tovi 
limosalacres et terebrant Vabem; 
dum tristimacrae sunt Boroges, 
egribiunt profugi Ratherres. 

"tu praecave, o mi Gnate, labervogem! 
quae Dente mordet, quae capit Unguibus! 
vita lubeiubram Volucrem, 
tu fugita frumium Rapanguem!" 



hie, Ense sumpto vorpaleo Manu, 
quaerebat Hostem manxomium diu: 
tunc Arborem ad Tumptan quievit - 
stabat ibi meditans parumper. 

dum celsacerbo sic Animo manet, 
venit labervox, Orbibus igneis, 
Silvam per ultugem susuflans, 
et veniens crepisibrudebat! 

bis terque! tuxtax! per medium Ferae 
Cor misit Ensem vorpaleum Puer! 
banc liquit enectam, ferensque 
turpe Caput rediit galumphans. 

"tune exscidisti Sponte labervogem? 
pro mi renidens Gnate, veru Patris 
ad Pectus! o phrabdale Tempus! 
euge papax!" hilare cachirmat. 

clarvesperabat, dum rotitant Tovi 
limosalacres et terebrant Vabem; 
dum tristimacrae sunt Boroges, 
egribiunt profugi Ratherres. 

"Vorpaleus" for "vorpal" is not too much different 
from the previous transliterations. But "celsacerbo animo" 
for "in ufFish thought" is quite effective, combining celsus, 
meaning lofty or high spirited, with acerbus, meaning 
troublesome, to represent two sides of the boy's mind; and 
"tuxtax" brilliantly recreates the alliterative effect of 
"snicker-snack" with a foreshortening typical of Latin. 
"Susuflans" for Carroll's "whiffling" may owe something 
to Dodgson's "sifflans". And "phrabdale tempus" does 
approximate the English "frabjous". 

m 

The history of the publication of the only classical 
Greek version of "Jabberwocky", insofar as I have been able 
to reconstruct it, began with a series of articles in the book 
review column "The Literary Queue", signed only with the 
initials E.B.O., in the London Morning Post of 1918. The 
impetus for producing Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky" in 
Greek began with an appeal for Latin translations of the 
poem. In the May 3, 1918, column, the literary reviewer 
E.B.O. observed that "it would be a good exercise for a sixth 
form in the intervals of military training, to make a Latin 
version of the Carrollian lines which begin: 'Twas brillig. . . '" 
(4). Readers responded quickly, and on May 17, E.B.O. 
printed the first verses of the two best versions he had 
received — the translations by Hassard Dodgson (obviously 
submitted by some other party) and Augustus Arthur 
Vansittart's which was erroneously attributed to someone 
named Sidgwick (5).* In response to queries about the Latin 
verses, E.B.O. printed the frill text of the Vansittart version 
on May 21, 1918, together with the request that some 
British Greek scholar attempt a Greek "Jabberwocky" (5). 
lAMBPnE lAMBIKni answered the request. It was 
composed by Ronald Arbuthnot Knox, former scholar of 
Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, while he was a Classics 
master at Shrewsbury School, a post he left in December 
1916 to serve with the Military Intelligence Division of the 
War Office. The Greek translation first appeared in the 
Shrewsbury School magazine Salopian (No. 344, June 15, 



1918) and was reprinted in the Morning Post, June 24, 1 9 1 8 
(3; see Eyres 24-27). It is not surprising that a Greek version 
of English nonsense should appear in the Salopian. 
Shrewsbury excelled in Classical studies to such an extent 
that the Post's editor concluded his article on the Greek 
"Jabberwocky" by saying that "dust collected in the 
(Shrewsbury) Sixth Form Library is found, when chemically 
analyzed, to consist of Greek particles." 

lAMBPQH lAMBIKQI 
KaDOKpo-uvToq ti5ti, y^oioxpa 5id Ttepiaxidq 
axpuP^io-Ovxa kqi aTpo^(t)O'0vT' dv e-upicncoK; xo^a, 
5eivfi 5' ETieoxe acoGpia Pop\)Yp6())a(; 
pdGaiai 5' dviiTtoiKov ij|j.vTiGav pdGai 
eKYpifX)Lia. Tov 5e npeaPDv E^a\)5dv kA,-uco. 
'Tiai, Tiai, (j)'6yoic; dv e^TceScoq 'Id|j,Ppoxa, 
eix' ovDxi M-dpnicov e'ixe 5fi 6dKvcov tijxoi 
YvdGoiaiv, dTtpoooiaxov. ax; 5' aiitax; ((jDyeiv 
opviGa 5eiv6v Yxtnoyvn. o-uS' dv (l)Gdvoi(; 
eXGcbv 5a<()^oioP(p npbc, ^.oyoDc; Bav6pdp7taYi.' 
6 5' ev XEpoiv ea)K07ivov e^dpa<; ^i^oc, 
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TtA^iarnv onoM napzoyz (t)XaxT6GpaT cncidv, 
eoTTi 5i' oMyoi). xcix; ePocncev apyxkac, 
G\)|j,(p p.epi|ivaq, eiiTi-upoiaiv 6|ifxaaiv 
op.'u^cov 'Idp.ppco^ eTiTex' ek vir-uSvfiq vdTiTic;, 
SfiXoc; 5£ PopPoA,ia|i6q fiv kotco^evo'u. 
xa-UTTiv 5e Kai 5ix', ccx; eoeiSe, kqi tpixoe, 
evGev te kqGev Sidxopov TiA-riyTiv v£p.cov, 

ECTVl^EV, E^ECTVa^EV EVKOTIUO) ^i(t)El, 

EiG' o-uTiEp EKxa KEiio-Evriq TE^Q)v Kapa 
Ya-uxo-ufiEvoc; KaTfiX,G£v. doTtaaxov 5' i5d)v 
E>,G6vG' 6 7ip£aP\)(;, Toid5' £^£(l)piYKao£v. 
'oo xotipe ^d|j.7ico\j/. (he, 'laixppoxoKxovov 
t65' dYKd>-ia^a TiaiSoq da^iEvax; exco. 
w TpvaPaKopiov fiiiap. co kqA-o-O KaX,d.' 

fl5r| 5' EKQ-UOTipEl, Y^OlOXpd X ev TtEpiOKld 

aTp\)pA,o\)VTa Kai aTpo(X(j)0'Gvx' dv ETjpicJKOK; xo^a, 
Seivt] 5' ETtEaxE acoGpia Pop\)Yp6(t)a(;, 
EKYpi^M^a 5' dvxiTtoiKov '{5|xvr|aav pdGai. 

* KoiKoq. dvTi TOV dTioiKoq. Hesych. 
Knox's iambic lines brilliantly adapt Greek voca- 
bulary and style to "Jabberwocky". The poem begins with a 
genitive absolute, a grammatical substitute for a temporal 
clause, which means at the time for burning — i.e., "'Twas 
brillig". Carroll's third-person narrative is changed to second 
person in these first two lines: you might find slippery toves. 
"Topha" is either a transliteration of "toves" or a play on the 
rather obscure word "trochos", found in the minor historian 
Herodorus, which may mean badger. (Toves, of course, are 
a species of badger.) The toves are turning about "strub- 
lounta" and spinning "stromphount" through the shadows — 
presumably the shadow of the sundial. A terrible torpidity 
held the Borogoves. "Sothria" combines sathros meaning 
unsound with nothria meaning sluggishness, which well 
approximates the thinking in Humpty Dumpty's explanation 



of "mimsy" as miserable and flimsy. The raths sang to the 
raths away from home a short poem. Knox uses "ekgrimma" 
for "epigramma". This poem, though a translation, seems to 
maintain more of a classical air than any of the other versions 
except perhaps Vansittart's. There is something ^schylean 
about it both in its obscure compounds and high-sounding 
tone. Also, as the anonymous reviewer pointed out, the 
dialect is Attic and the iambic verse is the same type used 
by Aeschylus in the dialogue sections of his tragedies. 
Knox's version must have uplifted British spirits when it 
appeared in the Morning Post, though perhaps not quite as 
much as the account of the death of a contemporary 
Jabberwock. During the weeks in which the "Jabberwocky" 
articles were featured in the "Literary Queue" column of 
the Post there appeared a terse notice of the death of 
Manfred von Richthofen, the notorious Red Baron. 

No translation, however felicitous, can escape 
being something of a parody. And if "Jabberwocky" itself 
parodies the simple heroic ballad, the Oxford wrangles of 
Benjamin Jowett and John Henry Newman, or whatever 
arcane interpretation the critics propose, then its Greek and 
Latin versions must be a kind of meta-parody. The translators 
play a game with Carroll's poem just as Carroll plays a game 
with his readers throughout the Alice books. The rules of 
this game require that we, like the author and the translator, 
maintain a perfect, though short-lived, Humpty Dumpty-like 
balance upon the narrow wall of language between sense 
and nonsense. Carroll once remarked of his nonsense verse 
that "a perfectly balanced mind could understand it" (Sewell 
122). The "Jabberwocky" versions of those translators, who 
are able to maintain a perfect balance between sense and 
nonsense deserve the praise Max Eastman gave to 
"Jabberwocky" itself: 
these verses are superior to most rhymes, not only 
because of their musical perfection, but because they 
combine a completer nonsense with a more meticulous 
possibility. (Lennon 309-10) 

Are not "Mors labrocii", Knox's Greek version, and 
the other classical translations of "Jabberwocky" examples 
of a completer nonsense? But when translations of "Jabber- 
wocky" into classical languages fail, they, even more than 
modem language versions, remind one of Humpty Dumpty 
as Alice first perceived him: "eyes fixed in the opposite 
direction and a stuffed figure after all" (Gardner 261). 

Afterword 

This article, first published in the Rocky Mountain 
Review of Language and Literature, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1987, 
is reprinted here with permission of the editors of that 
journal. In personal correspondence of Jan. 29, 1988, the 
late Peter L. Heath, who thought the article "deserved an 
audience beyond the bemused readers of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Review", suggested several corrections which have 
been incorporated in the article, including replacing "Bander- 
schnatzen" with "Banderschnatzen" in order to enable the 
rhyme with "kratzen". Edward Wakeling also offered several 
corrections. 



10 



Notes 

1. Earlier versions of this paper were read before a meeting of the 
Lewis Carroll Society of North America on November 5, 1 977, and 
before the Washington, DC. Classical Society on May 12, 1979. 
Permission to quote copyrighted "Jabberwocky" translations within 
the following works is gratefully acknowledged: Macmillan London 
and Basingstoke, publisher of Aliciae Per Speculum Transitus by 
Clive Harcourt Carruthers; and Basil Blackwell & Mott Ltd., publisher 
of More English Rhymes with Latin Renderings by Hubert Digby 
Watson. George J. Strugnell ofCoburg, Australia, has kindly given 
me permission (personal correspondence. May 27, 1 978) to print his 
unpublished "Jabberwocky" version. I would also like to express my 
thanks to the following individuals: James B. Lawson, Librarian, The 
Shrewsbury Schools, who sent me a photocopy of Ronald Knox's 
Greek "Jabberwocky" translation as first published in the Salopian 
(June 15, 1918); William B. Thompson, Curator of the National 
Collection of Classical Texts, University of Leeds, who searched, 
alas in vain, for evidence of "Jabberwocky" having been set as the 
English passage for the Greek or Latin verse translation examinations 
at Oxford or Cambridge; and those friends in Washington, D.C. who 
helped with the "cruces". I am especially grateful for the helpful 
suggestions of the anonymous reviewer of my manuscript. Any errors 
of omission or commission are the author's sole responsibility. 

2. Of the numerous editions and reprints of TTLG, Gardner's is the 
most useful and contains excellent notes on some of the translations 
of "Jabberwocky" (191 -97). 

3. Sharpe s Magazine. London: March 7 and March 21, 1846 (298- 
309) and (326-28). Shaw raises the possibility, but with little evidence 
to support it, that "Jabberwocky" may have been influenced by W. 
E. Aytoun's collection of ballads (9). 

4. For a discussion of referential and structural meaning in "Jabber- 
wocky" see Sutherland (208- 1 0). 

5. "Jabberwocky" has appealed to contemporary French translators 
and critics. Rickard discusses some of the problems of translating 
Lewis Carroll's works into French (45-66). See also Deleuze. 

6. Since 1872 it has been reprinted many times; for example: 
Collingwood, Picture Book (364-65); Williams and Madan (202); and 
Gardner (193-94). 

7. Proetz (116-18) reprints "Der Jammerwoch" and corrects the 
following errors made by Williams and Madan in reprinting Scott's 
translation: "schlichten" should be "schlichte" and "unten" should read 
"unter'm". "But, somehow," Proetz continues, "Macmillan 's 'Bander- 
schnatzchen' in the eighth line, which should have been 
'Banderschnatzen' seems to have been overlooked. In the first place, 
the 'Bandersnatch' is very big — almost as big as a dinosaur, for 
instance — and in the second, 'Banderschnatzchen' does not rhyme 
with 'kratzen,' which it must have done in the manuscript since all 
the other rhymes are impeccable" (119). 

8. Arthur Sidgwick was a very distinguished scholar, but he is not 
known to have composed a Latin "Jabberwocky" translation. 

Works Cited 

Aytoun, William E. Lays of Scottish Cavaliers. Edinburgh: 
Blackwood and Sons, 1 849. 

. The Ballads of Scotland Edinhur^: Blackwood and Sons, 

1858. 

Carroll, Lewis, Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found 
There. London: Macmillan, 1872. 



Carruthers, Clive Harcourt. Aliciae Per Speculum Transitus. New 
York:St. Martins, 1966. 

Collingwood, Stuart Dodgson. The Lewis Carroll Picture Book. 
London:T.F. Unwin, 1899. 

. The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll. London: Fisher 

Unwin, 1898. 

Deleuze, Giles. Logique du Sens. Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1969. 

Eyres, Laurence E. In Three Tongues. London: Chapman &. Hall, 
1959. 

Farb, Peter. Word Play New York: Knopf, 1975. 

Gardner, Martin. The Annotated Alice. Cleveland: World, 1963. 

Guiliano, Edward. Lewis Carroll: An Annotated International 

Bibliography, 1960-76. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 

1980. 

Lennon, Florence Becker. The Life of Lewis Carroll. New York: 
Collier Books, 1962. 

Losel, Franz. "The First German Translation of Alice in Wonderland". 
Hermathena 99 (1964): 66-79. 

Nowell-Smith, Simon. Letters to Macmillan. London: Macmillan, 
1967. 

Partridge, Eric, "Nonsense Words of Lewis Carroll". Here. There, 
and Everywhere: Essays on Language. London: H. Hamilton, 1950. 

Proetz, Victor. The Astonishment of Words. Austin: University of 
Texas Press, 1971. 

Richard, Peter. "Alice in France, or Can Lewis Carroll Be Trans- 
lated?" Comparative Literature Studies 12 (1975): 45-66. 

Smedley, Menella Bute. "The German Shepherd". Sharpe 's Mag- 
azine. March 7. 21, 1846. 298-328. 

Sewell, Elizabeth. The Field of Nonsense. London: Chatto & Windus, 
1952. 

Shaw, John Mackay. The Parodies of Lewis Carroll. Tallahassee: 
Florida State University Press, 1 960. 

Sutherland, Robert D. Language and Lewis Carroll The Hague: 
Moulton, 1970. 

Taylor, Alexander L. The White Knight. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 
1952. 

Tytler, Alexander Eraser. Essay on the Principles of Translation. 
London: T Cadell & W. Davis, 1 797. 

Watson, Hubert Digby. ''The Hunting of the Snark" Translated 
into Latin Elegiacs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1936. 

. More English Rhymes with Latin Renderings. Oxford: 

Basil Blackwell &Mott, 1937. 

Weaver, Warren. Alice in Many Tongues: The Translations of 

"Alice in Wonderland". Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 

1964. 

Whorf, Benjamin Lee. "Linguistics as an Exact Science". Language. 

Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf 

Ed. John B. Carroll. Cambridge: MIT Press and John Wiley & Sons, 

1976.220-32. 

Williams, Sidney H. and Falconer Madan. The Lewis Carroll 
Handbook. Rev. by Roger L. Green. Oxford: Oxford University 
Press, 1962. 



11 



Alice in Catalan 

Maria Gonzalez Davies 
Facultat de Ciencies Humanes 
Traduccio i Documentacio 
Universitat de Vic, Spain 

Introduction 

When national literatures are young or peripheral, 
translation, and especially the translation of children's 
literature, becomes visible preceding the growth of their 
own literary corpus. In the case of bilingual countries such 
as Catalonia, where Spanish and Catalan are the official 
languages, choosing to translate into the minority language 
has clear political and ideological implications. 

The above can be illustrated with a comparative 
study of two Catalan translations of Lewis Carroll's Alice 
in Wonderland written at two very different periods by two 
translators with different styles and aims: Josep Camer 
(1927) and Salvador Oliva (1996). These translations 
illustrate the linguistic, ideological and sociohistorical 
conventions of the Catalan community at given times and 
the changes it has experienced, corroborating Rita Oittinen's 
words when she writes about a similar case in Finland: "... 
situation and purpose are an intrinsic part of all translation 
... rather than the authority of the author." (3: 2000). What 
matters in these contexts is not so much the sacredness of 
the author as how his or her work can be assimilated by and 
enrich the receiving culture, especially if it coexists with a 
majority language. 

Two aspects have been examined in both trans- 
lations: a) the naturalising and foreignising translation strat- 
egies at the sociocultural and sociotextual levels, and b) 
the illustrations as a means to underline the translators' 
choices and political agenda. These relate to Schleiermach- 
er's (1813/1995) and Goethe's (1819/1995) notions of nat- 
uralisation and exoticizing, revisited by later twentieth-cen- 
tury translation theorists such as Lawrence Venuti (1995). 
A naturalising strategy is adopted when the translator makes 
the text familiar for the target readers, either by using 
cultural references close to them (sociocultural level) or 
by making the language fluent and the translator, invisible 
(sociotextual level). On the other hand, an exoticizing 
strategy makes the translator visible and the text "strange", 
unfamiliar, close to the source language and culture. 

The background: visions of Wonderland 

Alice in Wonderland (\S65) has been adopted by 
many cuhures in varying degrees through — of course — 
translation. There may be several reasons for opting for a 
policy of translation, from the most ideological to the most 
prosaic: to impose a culture following a colonising attitude 
or, on the contrary, to open a community to others and bring 
its culture closer; to fill in voids not only related to literary 
currents and schools of thought but also to the fields of 
science and technology; to fight an authoritarian regime by 
translating unsanctioned ideas either in a majority language 
or, more subversively, in a minority one such as Catalan; to 



add new readings to previous translations or to update their 
language; or to back up commercial ventures such as 
publishing fihn screenplays and best-sellers. 

Its consequences can also be varied: it can help to 
shape national literatures and receiving languages, to shape 
in the sense of closing the receivers' minds when censorship 
exists or to open mmds when dealing with different thoughts 
and lifestyles. In short, translation can mirror the source 
world, shape the target world, and bridge both. 

Children's literature can also be interpreted as a 
mirror and a shaper of its readers and their background. In 
John Stephens' words: 
Writing for children is usually purposeful. ..Since a 
culture's future is, to put it crudely, invested in its 
children, children's writers often take upon themselves 
the task of trying to mould audience attitude into 
'desirable' forms, which can mean either an attempt to 
perpetuate certain values or to resist socially dominant 
values which particular writers oppose. (1992: 3). 

This could be taken as the spirit behind translations 
for children undertaken in Catalonia, especially at the turn 
of the century. Children's literature occupied a relevant 
position in the years before 1939: over 20 specialised jour- 
nals were published between 1 868 and 1935. These included 
reviews and articles on books written or translated for 
children in Catalan. In the twenties Catalan authors published 
many more translations than original works. In Rovira and 
Ribe's catalogue of children's literature (1972), which 
covers all children's publications up to 1939, over 100 trans- 
lations figure from several languages, including Russian, 
Arabic and Japanese. English, German and French literature 
were especially favoured to the point that the practice of 
indirect translation was common, and literature, e.g., in 
English, was often translated from French texts. After the 
Spanish Civil War (1936-39) publications in Catalan were 
forbidden and decreased until the sixties when the Ley de 
Prensa e Imprenta (18 March 1964) included relevant 
positive changes to reduce the application of censorship. 

Nowadays, translation still occupies a relevant 
position in Catalan literary publications. In 1999, 10% of 
all books published in Spain belonged to the category of 
CYAL [Children's and Young Adults' Literature]; 12.1% 
were in Catalan (82.3% in Spanish, 2.2% in Basque and 2.3% 
in Galician). Twelve per cent of these books are translations, 
of which English is the source language for 63.5% (www. 
mcu.es). 

The translators 

Josep Camer and Salvador Oliva represent two 
different moments in Catalan history and literature and this 
comes across in their translations. 

Josep Camer (1884-1970) belonged to the literary 
movement known as Noucentisme which characterised the 
Catalan cultural renaissance in the first part of the 20th 
century and was based on nationalistic political action. 
Following the line set by the German Romantics, language 
was believed to be — and still is — the main sign of identity. 



12 



and translation was considered as the best means to support 
the process of creating a national literature. Its main beliefs 
and aims were to open Catalonia to the world and update its 
literature and language, mainly through translation; to seek 
models in the classics and the Middle Ages, the golden age 
of Catalan culture; and to highlight the pride of belonging 
to the Mediterranean cultural world. The translator was 
deemed, in Montoliu's words, "an educator of the masses", 
and translating became the "sacred duty" (1908/1998:37) 
of the great writers of the time. 

Carner participated in the above agenda by 
choosing a language — for his translations — that was gov- 
erned by aesthetic priorities and an archaic flavour under- 
lined by a high degree of formality: preciosisme. His aim 
was to re-create a literary and urban language, and he used 
his translations of classics of children's literature as ling- 
uistic "laboratories" to test it out. 

Seventy years later, in the nineties, the Empiiries 
publishing house commissioned from the poet and translator 
Salvador Oliva ( 1 942-) a new translation that would respond 
to the need for a text in accordance with the language as 
children speak it nowadays. It was reviewed favourably as a 
text that updates a much-respected older translation (I quote 
from one of the reviews in the Catalan newspaper Avui): 
"Oliva has met our expectations and renders a fluid, vivid 
and modem text that replaces Josep Camer's 1927 trans- 
lation which, with all its lexical splendour, had become old- 
fashioned." (Barba 1997). 

Cultural references and issues of naturalisation and 
exoticizing 

As will be seen in Camer's Alicia en terra de 
meravelles (1927), the Noucentista aims were attained in 
large measure by a naturalisation of the text, ie. taking it 
near to the target readers' space. Translation was initiated 
in the receiving culture, so here it is not a symptom of 
colonisation; quite the confrary, it helped to shape later liter- 
ary and linguistic conventions. It can be considered a subver- 
sive choice in that it signified the rebellion of the minority 
language, which aimed at universality through the exaltation 
of its own culture through translation, in a bilingual space 
shared with a strong majority language. 

Parcerisas has drawn attention to the connotations 
of the term used in Catalan for naturalisation, anostrament 
or "making ours" and concludes that most peripheral cul- 
tures seem to have a positive view of translation. In his article 
Lo que se gana en traduccion, he puts forward four reasons 
why translation has been positive for minority cultures and, 
of course, Catalan: 
in... modem Catalan literature translation has not been 
considered a peripheral element to its own literary 
system but an element of undeniable sfrengthening...to 
fill in the voids of a syncopated and inconsistent 
tradition. ..to introduce genres, schools of thought or 
literary movements successful in other countries. ..at 
political cross-roads, in periods of brutal repression... in 
the ideological and cultural renewal of the Sixties. (1997: 
54-55) 



In this context, the introduction of a foreign text 
becomes a real catalyst. It is not strange, then, that natural- 
isation should be favoured by Camer, whereas Oliva, living 
at a time when the language has a more solid tradition to 
sustain it than seventy years ago, did not feel this need and 
includes exoticisms at the sociocultural level in his trans- 
lation. 

The translation of sociocultural objects and the socio- 
textual level in Alice in Wonderland 

Here, the transference of cultural references has 
been analysed by means of a statistical study of the 
sociocultural objects in each of the translations in order 
not so much to attain an impossible scientific objectivity 
as to minimise the subjectivity inherent in any evaluation. 
This study is based on Eugene Nida's (1964:55) 
classification of cultural referents in five groups: a) 
material, related to everyday objects, b) ecological, related 
to differences in the places, weather, flora, fauna, etc., c) 
social, related to social organisation and its artistic 
manifestations in the arts or literature and history, d) 
religious, which includes ritualised and ideological 
manifestations, and e) linguistic, the tool that is needed to 
express the rest and which, according to Nida, refers to 
attitudes and conversational cues. The following are 
examples of the different translation choices for 
sociocultural objects in Alice in Wonderland (in all cases, 
the first translation is Camer's and the second is Oliva's, 
and the numbers indicate the pages in each edition): 
Material references 
Propernames : 
Pat (6) Patrici(40) Pat (39) 

Retranslation 
Pat Patrick Pat 

Food and drink 
cake (33) coca (14) pastis(16) 

Retranslation 
cake bread cake cake 

Ecological 
Places 
English coast (40) Costa (20) costaanglesa(21) 

Retranslation 
English coast coast English coast 

Animals 
Cheshire cat (83) gatcastella(63) gat de Cheshire (63) 

Retranslation 
Cheshire cat Castilian cat Cheshire cat 

Games 

Poker cards (ch. 8) transformed into poker cards (ch. 8) 

Spanish cards (ch.8) 

Social 

Literature 

'How doth the little 'Que li donarem 'Que fa el petit 
crocodile...' (38) a la pastoreta?' (18) cocodril..?' (20) 



13 



'You are old, Father ...versos de 'Sou veil, Pare 

William...' (69) Moss6n Cinto (50) Guillem...(47) 

Shakespeare (48) homes illustres (30) Shakespeare (29) 

Retranslation 

'How doth the little... "What shall we 'What does the 
give the little shep- little...? 
herdess? (a Cata- 
lan nursery song) 

'You are old, ...Father Cinto's You are old, Father 

Father William... ' verses... (reference William... ' 

to the Catalan poet 

Mossen Jacint 

Verdaguer 

[1863-1918]) 

Shakespeare Illustrious men Shakespeare 

Historical 

William the Conqueror Napole6 (23) Guillem el Conqueridor 

(41) 

Retranslation 

William the Conqueror Napoleon William the Conqueror 

Religious 

(More appear in Gamer's translation than in the source text) 

Oh, dear! (25) Ave Maria! (5) Ondia! (9) 

Retranslation 

Oh, dear! Virgin Mary! Wow! 

This comparison, of which only a few examples 
have been shown here, confirms the initial observations: 
Of 70 sociocultiiral objects chosen at random in the book, 
Camer has naturalised 29 whereas Oliva has done so with 
10. The quantifiable resuh of this observation is as follows: 

Camer has naturalised almost 40% of the analysed 
items whereas Oliva has done so with only a 14%. Quite the 
contrary of what's happened with the exoticizing strategy: 
16.6% in Gamer's case and 32.8% m Oliva's. 

Linguistic references 

Hatim (1996) defines the sociotextual level as the 
practices or ways of thinking and speaking that typify 
particular groups of text users. Camer and Oliva address 
these issues in different ways. 

The sociotextual level also includes socioling- 
uistic changes. For obvious reasons, it is difficult to defme 
quantifiable variables at this level but the difference between 
the translations permeates the texts. Although Camer wrote 
in a period that was close to Carroll's, his deliberate use of 
archaic language and a high degree of formality distanced 
his discourse even from that of children of his time, which 
conforms to the reasons outlined in the introduction: he 
meant to re-create the Golden Age of Catalan culture, which 
belonged to the 13* and 16* centuries. Let's take a look at 
some examples that illustrate this point: 
Pride in Catalan language 

...she quite forgot ...s'oblidade parlar ...no es va adonar 
how to speak good catala fi ( 1 5) que li fallava la 

English (35) gramatica ( 1 7) 



Retranslation 

...she quite forgot ...she forgot to speak... she didn't realise 
how to speak good good Catalan that her grammar 

English was incorrect 

High level of formality 

I'm glad people don't Estic ben contenta Men'alegroqueno 
give birthday presents que pels natalicis no donin regals 
like that! (122) donin presents d'aque- d'aniversari com 

sta mena ( 1 02) aquest! (92) 

Retranslation 

I'm glad people don't 'Presents' and I'm glad people 

give birthday pres- 'natalici ' are don 't give birthday 

ents like that archaic words presents like that! 

Archaic language 

The Fish-Footman El Lacai Peix El Lacai-Peix va 

began by producing comen9a per treure's comen9ar per 
from under his arm de sota el bra? una treure's de sota el 
a great letter (79) gran lletra (59) bra? una carta molt 

gran (57) 

Retranslation 

The Fish-Footman "Lletra " is an archaic The Fish-Footman 
began by producing word for "carta" began by producing 
from under his arm (letter) from under his arm 

a great letter a great letter 

The masculine as generic gender in Camer can be 
contrasted with Oliva's gender-oriented use of the mascu- 
line and the feminine, although the norms of the time should 
be considered: 
children infants nens i nenes 

Retranslation 
children infants boys and girls 

The need to update Gamer's text for children comes 
across clearly. Oliva himself talks about the need to rewrite 
the story because Gamer's translation "has become old. 
Owing to the language above all... the noucentista model has 
been proved too artificial ... [joumalistic] prose has set the 
linguistic model rather than Gamer's literary translations." 
(1997). 

Illustrations: Anglada in Garner vs. Tenniel in Oliva 

Illustrations can serve different purposes amongst 
which we can include the projection of the author's intent- 
ion — especially if s/he revises them, as was the case of 
Lewis Carroll with John Tenniel — or of the translator's in- 
tention, as was the case of Josep Camer and Lola Anglada. 
Oliva wished to be close to Carroll, whereas Camer pre- 
ferred to adapt the story to a Catalan environment. The il- 
lustrations in both translations underline these options. 

What does one do with the non-linguistic elements 
of a text? Should they be "translated"? In Gamer's translation 
they certainly were: Lola Anglada (1892-1984) took Ten- 
niel 's place, basing her drawings on Noucentista ideology 
and taking the reader to a Catalan and Mediterranean 
environment, thus further emphasising the tendency to 
naturalise the text. Lola Anglada was also a firm believer in 
the Noucentista agenda because for her "art was a means to 



14 



feel and think of one's country through images ... to walk 
towards an ideal, civilised and modem country ... Artists 
enrolled in the noucentista battle and created sensitive 
archetypes which would remember the fight and outline the 
collective project." (Cirici: 1979). 

Oliva, on the other hand, includes Tenniel's 
drawings, thus favouring the foreign illustrator. The evocative 
power of the illustrations situates the reader in the 
translator's contemporary context and gives clues as to his 
objectives. A few examples will suffice to compare the 
effect of the picture on Gamer's and Oliva's readers. 




tesque and clownish creature, which in Anglada's drawings 
has been transformed into a distinguished 19th-century 
Catalan gentleman. The other characters at the tea-party have 
also been sweetened up, and we can see how an English cot- 
tage has become a Catalan masia (country house) sur- 
rounded by Mediterranean conifers and fruit trees: the tea- 
party has become a berenar (aftemoon snack) in a typical 
pati de masia (country house courtyard). Although Gamer's 
text says / 'hora del te, the teapot has become a coffee-pot, 
coffee being a much more common drink in Catalonia, so 
that an inconsistency has been established between text and 
illustration. 




Illustration 1. Tenniel's stark cold beach with its rigid unre- 
lenting rocks and sea drawn with straight lines has become 
a warm Mediterranean beach with sailing boats and curved 
lines in Anglada's illustrations. The characters are more 
yielding and both Alice and the Mock Turtle wear ribbons. 
Their body language is also more open and fluid. 




Illustration 2. Carroll's underlying nightmarish and non- 
sensical atmosphere comes across in Tenniel's Hatter, a gro- 



lllustration 3. As to games, the choice of playing cards 
clearly illustrates the wish to naturalise. However, Carroll's 
word game relating each of the four suits of cards with differ- 
ent occupations could not be kept in either franslation. 
Final comments 

Each of these translations is a deliberate choice 
that springs from a social, historical and linguistic back- 
ground and seeks to situate Catalan literature alongside 
Spanish literature of the time. 

The translation strategies used by each translator 
reflect the changes in society but share the same aim: to 
incorporate the classics of children's literature into the 
receiving culture. Gamer's degree of naturalisation is higher 
than that of Oliva, who has chosen exoticisms when 
addressing an audience with a wider background knowledge 
of British cultural references than was possessed by 
Gamer's target readers. The percentages in the study of 
sociocultural objects are in stark contrast: it seems that both 
franslators have produced a text that is consistent with its 
social and linguistic period, albeit using a different strategic 
approach. 

It is not sufficient to know the author's background. 
It becomes totally necessary to study that of the translator 
and his/her time and place to understand the process of 
translation and the final product. Noucentisme was favoured 
by an urban bourgeoisie that, as has been mentioned, was 
highly conservative and religious. It was to this bourgeoisie 
that Gamer addressed his franslation: the preciosista style 



15 



comes across in Gamer's language but not in Oliva's. The 
latter's translation has been adapted to a late 20th-century 
readership of children who are used to English cultural 
referents, possess a good command of Catalan and its 
registers, and are not outwardly religion-oriented. Oliva's 
language shows how contemporary Catalan has been shaped 
according to the journalistic prose of the twenties and 
fifties, not to Noucentiste patterns, and his translation 
mirrors a society that is closer to the source culture. Natur- 
alisation is not always an imposed or colonising choice. It 
can serve as a conscious means to enrich the target culture, 
especially when it needs to find its own place in a space it 
has to share with another language. In this case, the foreign 
is "eaten" and "digested" to nourish the target culture, as 
Augusto do Campos' cannibalistic approach to translation 
would express it (1978). It is m these times when it is crucial 
to translate literary classics — such as Alice in Wonder- 
land — for children, who are "a culture's future" in John 
Stephens' words above, as a means to promote a minority 
language and literature that wishes to become part of those 
children's future, on equal terms with the majority language 
and literature with which it coexists. 

REFERENCES 

Bacardi et al. 1 998. Cent anys de traduccio at catala ( 1 89 1 - 1 99 1 ). 

Antologia. Vic: EUMO. 
Barba, Carles. 1997. "Alicia al pais de la modemitat". Barcelona: 

Avu\,3Q.\.91. 
Carroll, Lewis. 1865/1970. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, in 

Martin Gardner (ed) The Annotated Alice. Middlesex: Penguin. 

— Gamer, Josep (trans). 1 927/1 97 1 . Alicia en Terra de Meravelles. 
Barcelona: Joventut. 

— Oliva, Salvador, (trans). \996. Alicia al Pais de les Meravelles. 
Barcelona: Empuries. 

Ghevrel, Yves. 1995. "La reception de litteratures estrangeres", in 
Revista de Filologia Francesa. Madrid: Universidad 
Complutense, pp. 83-100. 

Girici, A. 1 979/1 992. "Lola Anglada i els mites", Quadems de I'obra 
social. In Comas, Montserrat (1992) "Lola Anglada, in 
memoriam". Barcelona: CLIJ (Cuadernos de Literatura Infantil 
yJuvenil), October, n°43, pp. 51-55. 

De Campos, Augusto. 1978. Verso, Reverso, Controverso. Sao 
Paulo: Perspectiva. 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. See Venuti, below. 

Gonzalez Davies, Maria 1 998. "Traduint I'impossible: Aspectes liidics 
a Alice in Wonderland". In Meseguer, Lluis & Villanueva, M' 
Luisa (eds) Intertextualitat i recepcio. CeiSteUo de la Plana: 
Universitat Jaume I. 

Hatim, Basil. 1 996. Seminar on Translation Studies at the Facultat de 
Ciencies Humanes, Traduccio i Documentacio (Universitat de 
Vic, Spain). 

Hermanns, Theo. 1988. "On Translating Proper Names, with 
reference to De Witte and Max Havelaar" in Michael Wintle 
(ed). Modern Dutch Studies. London: Athlone, pp. 1 1-13. 

Montoliu, Manuel de. Bacardi, M. (eds.). 1998. Cent anys de traduc- 
cio al catala (J 891 -1990). Antologia, Vic: EUMO Editorial. 

Nida, Eugene. 1964. Towards a Science of Translating. The Nether- 
lands: J. Brill. 



Oliva, Salvador 1995. "Sobre els elements suposadament intraduibles 

de la traducci6 literaria". In Josep Marco (ed) La Traduccio 

Literaria. Gastello de la Plana: Universitat Jaume I. 
— 1 997 "Pla ha guanyat Gamer en el model de Uengua" in Agusti 

Golomines (interview). Barcelona: Avui, 30. 1 .97. 
Parcerisas, Francesc. 1997. "Lo que se gana en traduccion". Donaire 

n° 8: 54-59. 
Rovira, Teresa and Carme Ribe. 1972. Bibliogrqfia historica del 

libro infantil en Catalan. Madrid: Asociacion Nacional de 

Bibliotecarios, Archiveros y Arque61ogos. 
Schliermacher, Friedrich. See Venuti, below. 
Stephens, John. 1992. Language and Ideology in Children's 

Fiction. London: Routledge. 
Venuti, Lawrence. 1995. The Translator's Invisibility: A History 

of Translation. London & New York: Routledge. 

NOTES 

' The sociolinguistic situation in Catalonia has changed in recent years. 
In 1 996, the year in which Oliva's translation was published, 95% of 
the population could understand Catalan and almost 50% (45.8%) 
could write it. The main children's periodical written wholly in Catalan, 
Cavall Fort, appeared in 1 962 and has a print run of 25,000. There 
are two TV channels belonging to the Catalan Radio and Television 
Corporation which broadcast only in Catalan: TVS and Canal 33. In 
urban spaces such as Barcelona, bilingualism is the norm in the 
broadcasting of local television channels such as BTV. 



SfPfnDIPITT 



\Paridtions on a Ch^shirfz Cat 



...we gotta go and never stop going 

til we get there. 

Where we going, man? 

I don't know but we gotta go. 

Jack Kerouac 
On the Road (1951) 



If ycis c5on't know where you're going 
Any P09(3 will take you there 

George Harrison 
"Any Road" on the Brainwashed CD (2002) 



16 



Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

Thank you for the copy of Knight Letter number 69. Some- 
how, I think the additional humor on the front page has not 
escaped such a vibrant character as yourself. 

I found the issue and its articles quite interesting, in light 
of having written our operatic version of Alice. Kevin 
Pease's ambigram was of course the same logic structure 
as one of Mozart's famous musical jokes. 

In my score, I had intended to take guidance from Carroll's 
text directly, and, reflecting on that process, I have found 
myself somewhat unaware (a feature of compositional 
thought as documented by both Stravinsky and Schoenberg) 
of what was occurring in the act of composing. Looking 
back and with the articles' points 
stimulating my thoughts, I realize 
that I have made my own musical 
mondegreen here and there. Or 
perhaps, as Sylvia Wright's "word 
or phrase resulting from a misin- 
terpretation of a word or phrase 
that has been heard [but not read]" 
refers only to words, we should 
coin our own musical versions 
thereof. How about ''revegreeii", 
based on the French word for 
dream? "Life, what is it but a 
dream?" Imbedding in the score 
little snippets of musical citations 
of operatic literature, children's 
songs and other miscellaneous 
quotes, these little quotes some- 
times have become obscured 
enough that what results, in 
Wright's sense, is now known 
clearly only to me, for some 
citations are not quotes, but new 

musical gestures misinterpreted from other composers' 
work. 

Certainly, as to other quasi-Carrollian effects in the score, 
there are all those things your Knight Letter's articles speak 
of, as there are in the Ur-texts themselves. There is parody 
"that mimics the style of another composer"; musical 
anagrams as "harmonic structures representative of letters 
are rearranged into another word or phrase" (A=a, L=d, I=a, 
C=c and E=e, these notes based on the musical scale, and 
Maurice Durufle's extension of additional letters inter- 
preted as notes); an overriding acrostic in which the simple 
diatonic scale makes a cantus firmus for much of the music; 
musical palindromes in which many phrases play in and then 
backwards out again; and nonsense, when certain polytonal 
gestures (particularly in the celesta's interplay in some of 
the orchestrations as Alice makes her mathematical and 
geographical errors) and traditional harmonies are used 
untraditionally, such as the dominant seventh chord with its 
well-accepted historical ftinctions which become whole sets 



of nonftinctional harmonies, as in the setting of the "Fish 
Riddle." 

We shall see how and where this score lands. I have sent out 
quite a number of copies, and now am flirting with two 
companies which are examining "her" with the thought of 
committing to a premiere. With the long lead time which 
opera companies require to plan, I think this will still be a 
long process. In the meanwhile, keep good thoughts. 

Gary Bachlund 

Re: "A Dis-Parody of Anonymity" by Matt Demakos and 
Ruth Herman in AX 69: 

The referenced article contains a number of errors, a ques- 
tionable claim and a definition 
to resolve. 

The claim by the authors that a 
nursery rhyme can't have a 
known author is curious. What 
is their authority for such an 
assertion? The Columbia Ency- 
clopedia, fifth edition says 
nursery rhymes are "usually 
anonymous" but hardly man- 
dates it. And the Opies' Three 
Centuries of Nursery Rhymes 
and Poetry for Children, 1911, 
a catalogue of an exhibition of 
their books "in which the most 
familiar of our traditional 
rhymes are first found" lists a 
number of authors. In their The 
Oxford Dictionary of Nursery 
Rhymes, 1951, the Opies write 
"Nor should the critic be sur- 
prised when verses now pre- 
served solely for the amuse- 
ment of the young are discovered to have come from such 
an accomplished hand as Sedley's." So, to the Opies, ano- 
nymity wasn't a necessity for a nursery rhyme. 

The [article's] authors paraphrase that "The Queen of Hearts" 
is "an anonymous rhyme used but not parodied by Carroll". 
On p. 359 of their Oxford Dictionary, the Opies write that 
it first appeared in print in 1782. The first verse is nearly 
identical to the verse in Alice. On p. 360, they write "Lewis 
Carroll infroduces the rhyme-characters in Alice in Won- 
derland, 1865." After Carroll "introduces" or "used" the 
characters, I believe he parodied them. 

In my copy of Miscellaneous Poems by John Byrom, 
Manchester, 1773, pp. 343-344, Byrom wrote: "Some say, 
compar'd to Bononcini, / That Mynheer Handel's but a 
Ninny; / Others aver, that he to Handel / Is scarcely fit to 
hold a Candle: / Sfrange all this Difference should be, / 'Twixt 
Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee!" If someone can find an 
earlier reference to the "Tweedle" use I would be interested 
in learning of it. If this is the earliest, as I believe it to be. 




17 



then it is a satire, not a nursery rhyme and wasn't written 
anonymously as claimed by the authors. As Dee is quoted 
in Looking-Glass, " — but as it isn't, it ain't." Did Carroll 
parody this? 1 believe so. (N.B. Bandersnatch No.86, p. 12 
cited a 1 776 "Tweedle" reference, and "Far-Flung" in this 
issue, p.29 contains an 1780.) 

The authors say that "Twmkle, Twinkle Little Star" fails to 
meet the definition of a nursery rhyme, as it has a known 
author. The author is now known but it was published 
anonymously "By the Authors of 'Original Poems'" in 1 806 
in Rhymes for the Nursery (not Rhymes of the Nursery as 
stated by the authors!). But in any event, anonymity isn't a 
requirement for a nursery rhyme as I believe has been shown. 
(If the authors persist in their anonymity test, then it would 
seem that this nursery rhyme, published anonymously, 
became an un-nursery rhyme when the author, Jane Taylor, 
became known.) The title of the piece is "The Star." It was 
originally a poem, not a song as stated by the authors. The 
Opies are clear on this as they cited the 1 806 book, (a copy 
of which is in my collection) in the same note on p. 398 of 
Dictionary as the 1 860 and 1 865 music referred to by the 
authors. The Opies are in error writing that 1 860 was the 
first time the poem was set to music. See James J. Fuld, 
The Book of World-famous Music, New York:Dover, my 
copy is the fourth edition 1995. On p. 593, he writes "the 
music — appeared (without words) in 1761 — in Paris." On 
p. 594 he continues, the "music and words of Twinkle, 
Twinkle Little Star were probably first printed together in 
The Singing Master No. Ill, First Class Tune-Book, 
(London, 1838)." The Opies, on p. 398 of Dictionary v^rite 
"The Star has been fi-equently parodied, an example being 
the Mad Hatter's, 'Twinkle, twinkle little bat!'" This one is 
a parodied nursery rhyme. 

The Opies have a great deal to say about Humpty Dumpty in 
their Dictionary. They call him a "popular nursery figure" 
(p. 215) and reproduce the Tenniel illustration of Alice and 
Humpty about to shake hands. Is this only a "use" as stated 
by the authors, or is it a parody, "an imitation for comic 
effect" as I believe? Readers can debate this. 

Regarding the "Lion and the Unicom", see the excellent 
article written by the Carroll scholar Jeffrey Stem, "Carroll, 
The Lion and the Unicom" in The Carrollian, No.5, Spring 
2000, pp. 42-51. He opens his article by writing "The 
intriguing question of the source of artistic inspiration is 
emphasized for Carroll scholars since a clear element of 
the Alice text is related to allusive parodies that are part of 
the intentional undertow." 

Finally, just what is the authors', or any reader's definition 
of a "parody"? My Webster defines it as "a literary or 
musical work in which the style of an author or work is 
closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule." And the 
same dictionary defines "imitate" as " 1 : to follow as a pattem, 
model or example; 2: to be or appear like: resemble." To 
"imitate for comic effect" was clearly one of Carroll's 
objectives with his Alice books and he succeeded famously. 




But just what in the Alice books qualifies as "a parodied 
nursery rhyme" or even just a parody is not so clear. 

Jon Lindseth 
Cleveland, Ohio 

I was pleased not only by your printing of my letter re: "white 
stones" but immensely impressed by the further research 
which brought to light the "references from classical 
literature". 

Further I was entertained by the reference to Littell's book 
The Company. Des Fitzgerald was a colleague of mine, 
married at one time to Marrietta Tree (Adlai Stevenson's 
fi-iend), and an interesting man during the Vietnam War. One 
of our close associates had a biography written about him 
entitled Wilderness of Mirrors which exactly reflected the 
nature of a career in espionage. The title suggested a life 
experienced "through a looking-glass". 

Meanwhile, "correspondingly", as the Harvard sociology 
professor [Pitirim] Sorokin would have said in his thick 
Russian accent, there was another book like Littell's: 
Historian's Fallacies by David Hackett Fischer (Harper 
Row, 1970), which found much in the illogic of most 
academic work to make the author think he'd been following 
the White Rabbit. He used many quotations from the Carroll 
canon to make his points. 

Finally, should not Darebury (line 6, p.25) be Daresbury? 

Best regards, 

John Hadden 
Bmnswick ME 

Sibyline leaves and "Which Dreamed It?" in Alice's 
Adventures 

1. Sibyline leaves 

Chloe Nichols has contacted me in connection with a recent 
piece in The Carrollian, drawing my attention to her ovm 
piece in Knight Letter 67. She deplores two tendencies 
which are widespread in Carrollian criticism: leaving 
intuitions as intuitions without producing much evidence 
to shore them up, and interpreting Victorian writing in terms 
of current American thought patterns. She is well aware that 
her own paper exhibits both these failings. Despite this, her 
paper possesses a remarkable power of stimulating its 
readers, arising from her skill in leading them to the brink 
of her discoveries, but leaving them to take the final steps 
on their own. This applies panicularly to her study of two 
elements of the frame story of Alice's Adventures: story- 
telling (both oral and written) and leaves. 

Since Carroll's story describes an "under-ground" adventure, 
it is natural that he would have drawn upon the most famous 
explorations of that region. There are fi-equent allusions to 
Dante's Inferno in his middle chapters, but I know of no 
other crific beside Nichols who has noticed the allusions 
to Virgil's Alneid, despite that book having always been 
recognised as one which "every schoolboy knows." 




1 



("Schoolboy" here of course means "public schoolboy." This 
English phrase was common currency, but has declined in 
use in the past fifty years as more and more state-educated 
boys — and girls — have infiltrated the professional classes.) 

Alice, descending into Wonderland, comes down "upon a 
heap of sticks and dry leaves." With the dark passages before 
and behind her, this is certainly reminiscent, as Nichols 
implies, of the heaps of dry leaves which accumulated in 
the sibyl Deiphobe's cave-system and upon which she wrote 
her prophecies. An accumulation of dry leaves inscribed 
with prophecies would today be called a manuscript. And if 
we draw a parallel with the name given to the "old Turtle" in 
Chapter 9 of Alice 's Adventures we also have the glue which 
sticks the leaves of the manuscript together. 

Nichols suggests that there may additionally be a correlation 
between this heap and the famous "golden bough" which 
/Eneas had to bring with him to gain access to the 
underground realms. Carroll would have been unlikely to 
visualise that bough as bearing dry leaves, because it would 
go against the deeper symbolism of the image. But if Alice 
did fall heavily upon a small dead bough she would be likely 
to break it into a heap of sticks and dry leaves. Moreover, 
there is an alternative meaning to the phrase "down she came 
upon" which suggests that Alice, like y^neas, brought the 
"heap" from the outside world (or, more accurately, that it 
brought her), even though she did not become aware of it 
until the completion of her fall. In the same way, the book 
Alice's Adventures acts for readers as a golden bough in 
that it gives them access to the Wonderland of Alice's dream 
imagination. 

Although this sibyl and her cave system existed as a material 
reality in ancient Greece, they are also, of course, a 
metaphor for the workings of a sub-conscious mind. Alice's 
mind, however, at first seems to be ahnost a perfect and 
absolute blank. She enters the "long, low hall" with many 
closed doors which is the traditional image of a child's brain 
in fairy tales like the Grimms' "Mary's Child," and all she 
finds there is an almost empty table: the tabula rasa which 
symbolised a child's brain for Enlightenment (and many 
later) educationalists. But the all-important tiny golden key 
of Coleridge's "primary imagination" lies there. 

Nichols notes that in the closing part of the frame story 
Carroll describes leaves which are not simply "dry" but 
"dead." And, whereas Alice descended into Wonderland 
"down [. . .] upon" the dry leaves, the dead leaves descend 
"down [. . .] upon" Alice as she leaves that realm. Nichols 
assumes that because Alice dreams of Spring it must be 
Spring in the above-ground world. But seasons in dreams 
do not necessarily match with the actual seasons. The few 
details we are given of Alice's above-ground surroundings 
would fit any month in Oxford from April through 
September. The season is fixed as Michaelmas*, however, 
by the combination of the first falling leaves of autumn and 
the time of the sunset. Nichols quotes Peter Coveney's 
assessment of the mood here as conveying "hints of be- 



trayed innocence and autumnal decay," and these are cer- 
tainly present. But the popular myth that that is all there is 
to Carroll has long been exploded. Of equal importance to 
him here is the fact that Michaelmas is the beginning of the 
new year at Oxford — a time when youth is called upon to 
put aside childish things and heed St. Michael's call to battle 
against the dragon. 

The dead leaves in the overground world as Alice awakes 
manifest in Wonderland as what Nichols aptly calls "the at- 
tacking forces of Alice's antagonist". When, ultimately, Al- 
ice is able to denounce openly the Queen of Hearts (her 
mother) and the Queen's lackeys as "nothing but a pack of 
cards!" she triumphantly rises out of Wonderland, stepping 
from childhood to adolescence by rejecting misguided pa- 
rental authority. It is a splendid beginning to her Michaelic 
battle. 

These playing-cards contrast sharply with the leaves of the 
book at the beginning of Alice's dream. Their stiffness, their 
uniformity in all aspects except their faces, plus the 
stylisation of these faces, forcibly convey her mother's de- 
plorable conception of human beings. 

One of the traditional uses of cards is for divination, and in 
this respect the pack flying at Alice is, as Nichols hints, 
like the leaves blowing out of Deiphobe's cave. Critics have 
noticed that the first card to fall in Tenniel's illustration is 
the Ace of Spades (the Executioner). Fortunately this card 
looks likely to miss Alice, as do the lowest of the Diamonds 
and two unidentified cards. But the immediately following 
Ace of Hearts and Ace of Diamonds seem likely to "flutter 
down upon her". And if, as seems likely, they represent 
excess of passion and excess of wealth, then her future is 
bleak. 

2. Which Dreamed It 

Nichols argues that Carroll several times in the end part of 
the frame story stresses the importance of what Bjorn 
Sundmark calls "the oral-literary continuum". Nichols also 
stresses that we do not learn exactly what Alice tells her 
sister. Alice tells her sister "all these strange adventures 
that you have just been reading about," but her remembered 
story will not be exactly the same as the content of her 
dream. Her sister's memory of what Alice tells her will 
likewise be 'imperfect'. And these three versions of the tale 
will differ considerably from the initial tale told to Alice 
Liddell and her two eldest sisters which is alluded to in the 
frame story of Under-Ground: 

She saw an ancient city, and a quiet river winding near it 
along the plain, and up the stream went slowly gliding a boat 
with a merry party of children on board. [. . .] among them 
was another little Alice, who sat listenmg to a tale that was 
being told, and she listened for the words of the tale, and lo! 
it was the dream of her own little sister. [...] 

Then she thought (in a dream within the dream, as it were) 
how this same little Alice would [ text continues as in Alice 's 
Adventures]. 



19 



The situation here foreshadows Alice's "Which Dreamed 
It" musings at the end of her Looking-Glass-Land adventures. 
The metaphysical situation there is complex enough, but 
here it is yet more complex, with the tale itself constantly 
metamorphosing and Carroll stressing that it is heard/read/ 
experienced differently by different listeners/readers/ 
'dreamers'. A similar situation recurs in chapter 3 with 
Alice's response to the Mouse's tale, which becomes for 
her something palpable. There is another comparable 
situation in Chapter 7 where Alice takes as a fictional story 
the Dormouse's description of how the situation of three 
Liddell girls appears to a creature like itself which perceives 
wholly in imaginative pictures. 

It is legitimate, in this context, to ask 'what is the book which 
Alice's sister is reading?' Carroll depicts her in Under- 
Ground as an archetypal young woman of the Romantic 
period sitting bolt-upright but with bowed head, engrossed 
in her book and oblivious to young Alice m front of her. 
One is reminded of a famous painting by Caspar David 
Friedrich: Park mit Aussicht ins freie Land, also known as 
Gartenterrasse or Staatliche Schlosser und Garten in 
Sanssouci, Potsdam. There, it is a glorious landscape to 
which the young woman seems oblivious. But another, 
deeper meaning lies behind this meaning. At that deeper 
level, the landscape is created by the young woman's higher 
imagination, as is suggested by the lion-guarded gate in the 
painting. Similarly, the above quotation from the end of 
Under-Ground suggests that the "dream Alice" of Under- 
Ground and Wonderland is, from one aspect, an imaginative 
creation of Alice's sister (and likewise of Carroll and the 
reader). It is relevant here that stories by several of the 
principal German Romantic writers tell of books in which 
the protagonist's adventures have been written down before 
they happen by all-seeing beings who are never explained to 
the protagonist or to the reader of these stories. 

Carroll disguises this aspect of his story by telling us that 
Alice had "once or twice [. . .] peeped into the book her 
sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in 
it." Alice is likely to have done this very soon after her sister 
took up the book, and pages 2-7 of Alice's Adventures in 
the original Macmillan editions are without "pictures or 



conversations", since talking to oneself cannot truly be 
called conversation. 

At the end, Alice's sister is depicted as sentimental and 
hypocritical. It is dishonest of her to muse about Alice's 
"happy summer days" when, on the day in question, Alice 
was bored stiff Nevertheless, when Alice has told her story 
and has preemptively been sent home to tea, this sister is 
capable of a well-organised, conscious meditation about 
Alice and the dissemination of the story of her adventures 
in the fijture. This dissemination will not be restricted to 
her own family because, contrary to Nichols' assertion, there 
is no suggestion that Alice will tell her stories as a mother. 
Although (as has been suggested by J. Pallison) Carroll 
seems to draw elements of his final image from the end of 
Christina Rossetti's Goblin Market, where Laura and Lizzie 
tell their adventures to their children, it seems likely that 
here he pictures Alice becoming a traditional "Mother 
Goose" type of universal story-teller. 

John Docherty 

* [According to Edward Wakeling, Michaelmas is the pe- 
riod from September to December, not April to Septem- 
ber as stated. The late Spring is called "Easter and Act" 
and the summer is called "Trinity. "] 

Friedrich (detail) 





Eyebeam by Sam Hurt 



VCLL, HERE WE THURRV UP, MAN' 
ftRE...HOMC SUEEI/W RNS ARC 

WOME ^ GETTING 

:»C ^ .- u ^ ^^ ^ TIRED' 




20 



An Unheeded Early Plea for a Lewis Carroll Society 

August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

In 1969, the year of the founding of the British 
Lewis Carroll Society and five years before the birth of ours, 
there appeared in the American publication Word Ways: The 
Journal of Recreational Linguistics^ a call for the estab- 
lishment of a Lewis Carroll Society. The call came in an 
article in the November 1969 issue (Vol. 2, no. 4) published 
under the title "For a Lewis Carroll Society" and its author 
signed himself "A.Vorpal Penn." Here are the first few 
paragraphs of that article. 

The publication of Martin Gardner's Annotated Alice and 
Annotated Snark has given new life to the Lewis Carroll, or 
whimsicalogical, school of recreational linguistics. Is there a place 
in the world for a formal organization to give support and 
encouragement to this worthy school? I think there is, and that 
place is here. 

I propose that a call be issued to all serious Carroll students and 
funny imitators to form a society for the hunting of Snarks. (Due 
to the dearth of warranted genuine Snarks, it would be necessary 
to recognize merely literary Snarks as fair game. See definitions 
and specimens below.) The society would be founded on estab- 
lished Pickwickian principles, and members would be admitted 
only upon evidence of having captured a Snark. 

One possible name which suggests itself is "Professional Snark 
Hunters' Association of the World" (acronym PSHAW). Another, 
for which I acknowledge a preference, is the shorter and in every 
way punchier "Bold Order of Snark Hunters" (BOSH). Once 
honored by admission to the society, members would be entitled 
to use its initials after their names on formal occasions and in 
advertising. 

If a society emblem were to be adopted, perhaps it could display 
an arrangement of shoes and ships and sealing-wax and cabbages 
and kings, along with a suitable motto, such as "Lingua in Bucca!" 
[L. "Tongue in Cheek"] 

Definitions and Specimens of Literary Snarks 

Snark of the First Type: An Observation. In Through the 
Looking-Glass the White Knight is discoursing about inventions: 

"Now the cleverest thing of the sort that I ever did," [he says] 
"was inventing a new pudding during the meat-course." 
"In time to have it cooked for the next course?" said Alice. "Well, 
that vf ay quick work, certainly!" 
"Well, not the next course. . ." etc. 

Surely this is an allusion to the adage that the proof of the pudding 
is in the eating! Yet, since the recipe given includes gunpowder, 
perhaps in this case it is as well that the pudding was not even 
cooked! 

Snark of the Second Type: A Contradiction. Again in Through 
the Looking-Glass, when Alice discovers the chess people 
strolling among the cinders of the hearth, she picks up the White 
King, dusts him off, and sets him beside his Queen on the tabletop. 
The startled King says: "I assure you, my dear, I turned cold to 
the very ends of my whiskers!" to which the Queen replies, "You 
haven't got any whiskers." 

Yet the official Tenniel illustrations clearly show the King to have 
chin whiskers at least! 

Snark of the Third Type: A Speculation. Nowhere in The 
Hunting of the Snark are we told the name of the ship. Yet, 
given the fact that the captain was a Bellman, and knowing the 



propensity of captains to name their vessels after their lady friends, 
mightn't we infer that the ship was called "The Bellman's Belle"? 

Snark of the Fourth Type: A Question. Sir John Tenniel 's 
illustration of the slaying of the Jabberwock shows a youthful 
figure with long, blond hair wielding the vorpal sword. Is it Alice? 

Snark of the Fifth Type: An Imitation. See "A Helico-Spherical 
Cocktail Party," by A. Vorpal Penn, in Word Ways, Vol. I, No. 3. 

Snark of the Sixth Type: The Invention of a new type of Snark. 

Snark of the Non Type: One Which Would Be a Snark if it 
were directly related to the writings of Lewis Carroll, "but as it 
isn't, it ain't". 

The article then meanders somehow into reflections 
on the story of the Wizard of Oz and the improvements made 
upon it by the famous Judy Garland film of 1939. 

"A. Vorpal Penn" was the pen name of John Collins, 
who wrote several other articles on Carrollian subjects for 
Word Ways magazine. Unfortunately no further information 
on him could be found through standard library and Internet 
searches. He was not among the early members of the Lewis 
Carroll Society of North America. In fact, he seems never 
to have joined our society. His last known address according 
to the current editor of Word Ways was in California in 1 976. 
From the beginning of his essay it seems clear that he had 
only recently come across Martin Gardner's annotated 
Carroll books. Or perhaps he thought to himself on a rainy 
autumn afternoon, "Why not start a Lewis Carroll Society?" 

Whatever the case may have been, he displays no 
knowledge of the original Lewis Carroll Society, which held 
its first meeting in London on May 1 5 of that year. The 
British Carroll Society was originally organized as a club 
under the asgis of the Greater London Council, and its first 
general meeting after the May organizational meeting was 
held in October 1969. The Times and The Daily Telegraph 
covered that event and news of the new organization was 
picked up in a number of U.S. newspapers, presumably 
through the wire service. However, Collins makes no 
mention of the London organization and his plea would have 
made considerably less sense had he been aware of the group 
in London set up by Ellis Hilbnan, Anne Clark, and Tim 
Leonard. The earliest membership lists I have for the Lewis 
Carroll Society also do not show a John Collins among its 
members. If anything, Collins may have heard of the Oxford 
and Cambridge Snark Clubs or at least read the entry on the 
Snark societies in the preface printed for the 1 967 Penguin 
edition of Martin Gardner's The Annotated Snark because 
of his inordinate preoccupation with Snarks in his Word 
Ways article cited above. It is interesting that another 
American in addition to Stan Marx was thinking about starting 
a Lewis Carroll society. I wonder whether there had been 
others thinking along the same lines? 



Thanks are due to Mark Richards for information on the beginnings 
of the British Lewis Carroll Society. 

1 . Founded in 1 968, Word Ways is still published in an 80-page format 
four times a year and is a delight for fans of "logology" or "recreational 
linguistics". Word Ways, Spring Valley Road, Morristown, NJ 07960; 
wordways@juno.com; http://wordways.com/. 



21 



Ravings from the Writing Desk 

of Alan Tannenbaum 

The LCSNA writing desk just arrived here in Aus- 
tin, Texas, from its former custodian, Stephanie Lovett. I 
unpacked it, booted it up, and it seems to work nicely. The 
drawers are still filled with postage cases, electric pens, 
and raven quills, but I don't think I'll be using those in this 
issue's column, my first after taking over as your President. 

The first pleasant order of business for me is to 
thank the previous officers. Stephanie, along with the re- 
elected Mark Burstein (Vice President and Knight Letter 
Editor), Cindy Watter (Secretary), and Francine Abeles 
(Treasurer) all deserve our thanks for 
a job well done. I know Stephanie will 
continue to work on Society projects 
as a continuing member of the Board 
of Directors, and since the other of- 
ficers will be sticking around, the tran- 
sition will be an easy one. 

I also want to thank Germaine 
Weaver and Don Rackin for their ser- 
vice on the Board, and to welcome Matt 
Demakos, Andrew Sellon, and Angelica 
Carpenter as new Board members. The 
remainder of the Boards of Directors 
and Advisors remains intact, as do the 
memorial funds committees. Charlie 
Lovett continues as chairman of the 
Publications Committee. 

Above all, the Society is on 
good footing: financially; with our 
membership (over 330 worldwide); 
and with regards to plans for future 
meetings, publications, and other activities already under- 
way. 

Our outstanding meeting in San Francisco is cov- 
ered elsewhere in this issue, but special thanks go to Mark 
Burstein and Cindy Watter for making it a success. 

Now, on to the future. The next meeting will be 
held on April 12*, 2003 at the Newberry Library in Chi- 
cago. Former President Joel Birenbaum will be arranging 
the festivities. Some excellent talks and activities are in the 
works, including a lecture by Douglas R. Hofstadter, who is 
famous for many reasons. I was first introduced to his writ- 
ings in the Metamagical Themas column in Scientific Amer- 
ican (successor to Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games 
column), and then to his Pulitzer Prize-winning book Godel, 
Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, subtitled "A Meta- 
phorical Fugue on Mind and Machines in the Spirit of Lewis 
Carroll". You won't want to miss this talk! 

We have two other fine speakers as well. George 
Bodmer, chair of the English department at Indiana Univer- 
sity Northwest, will discuss Dr A.S.W. Rosenbach, the fa- 
mous collector and bookseller, best known for his procure- 
ment of the original manuscript for Alice's Adventures un- 
der Ground. Our own Ruth Berman will examine the genre 
of the Alice stories vis-^-vis whether or not they should be 




considered a "fairy tale". The Newberry will also stage an 
exhibition of some of their Lewis Carroll holdings. 

It's time for another auction! If the main program 
isn't enough to entice you to come to Chicago, then the 
auction surely will. We haven't held an auction since 1994, 
so imagine the treasures waiting to go up on the block. It 
helps fimd the publications activities of the Society, so watch 
for a letter and start looking through your collection for 
items to donate. 

The Fales Library at New York University, home 
of the Alfred C. Berol Collection (not to mention the fii- 
ture home of the LCSNA Archives - see KL 68, p. 18), will 
be host to the Autumn 2003 meet- 
ing, tentatively scheduled for Octo- 
ber 25*. We already have some out- 
standing speakers lined up, includ- 
ing the well-known Carroll scholars 
Morton Cohen and Edward Wake- 
ling. These two world-class authors, 
whose works include a biography, 
the diaries, letters, photographs, 
games, and just about any other as- 
pect of Lewis Carroll you can think 
of, are writing a new book on his 
communications with his illustra- 
tors, scheduled for publication next 
Autumn. 

As for ravings, I want to 
point out that the Society is embod- 
ied in the semi-annual meetings, the 
Web site, and our publications. Since 
only a small fraction of our far-flung 
membership can travel to the meet- 
ings, it falls to the publications, including the Web site, the 
series of books Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll and especially 
the Knight Letter, to serve as the face of the Society and 
the value received from membership. From my point of view, 
we're looking good, but if you have any suggestions for im- 
provement or possibly material to contribute, I urge you to 
contact the respective editors or me directly. We can be 
reached through links on the Web site or in care of the Sec- 
retary, whose address appears on the back page. Your par- 
ticipation is very much welcomed! 




"Snow White was poisoned by an apple. 

Jack found a giant in his beanstalk, and look 

what happened to Alice when she ate the mushroom! 

And you wonder why I won't eat fruits and vegetables?" 



22 



^monam 



Peter Lauchlan Heath 

1920 - August 4* 

Peter Heath, who was a former president and 
nearly a founding member of the Lewis Carroll Society 
of North America as well as a very good friend to many 
Carrollians in the United States, Great Britain, and Russia, 
has died in Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Bom in Milan, Italy, Peter attended Shrewsbury 
School, one of the most academically rigorous of the 
British public schools, and then Magdalen College, 
Oxford, where he took a first-class degree in Modem 
Greats. He served with the Royal Armoured Corps during 
the Second World War. 

In 1995 he became Professor Emeritus of Phi- 
losophy at the University of Virginia after having taught 
at Mr. Jefferson's university for 33 years. He had served 
as chairman of the Corcoran Department of Philosophy 
at the University of Virginia and as president of the Virg- 
inia Philosophical Association. According to the notice 
in the Charlottesville Daily Progress, Peter "taught 
close to 10,000 undergraduates during his career at the 
University of Virginia, with his Introduction to Philosophy 
and Basic Logic classes, leading generations of students 
into the study of philosophy. His previous academic 
appointments had been at the University of Edinburgh and 
the University of St. Andrews in Scotland." 

When Dr. Sandor Burstein and his son Mark were 
planning to establish a West Coast branch of the Society, 
Peter, who was then president of the LCSNA but never 
jealous of its prerogatives, wrote them a most encour- 
aging letter congratulating them on their new Carroll 
venture and recognized Mark as the "Warden of Outland". 

Like F.C.S. Schiller, the British pragmatist and 
author of the Mind! parodic commentary on The Hunting 
of the Snark, Peter had a roguish sense of humor which 
is perhaps best exhibited in his brilliant article on "Noth- 
ing" in The Encyclopcedia of Philosophy. Of course, he 
also wrote the article on Lewis Carroll for that encyclo- 
paedia. [In fact, he used to enjoy introducing himself as 
"the world's foremost authority on nothing".] 

Although he was trained at Oxford during the 
heyday of the analytic philosophy of language school, he 
was never one of those tiresome Wittgenstein clones, 
even if one of his favorite phrases went something like 
this: "The paradox we seem to be facing simply wants 
some sorting out of its elements in order to be resolved." 
In one of his first philosophical articles, "The Limits of 
Science" (Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 2, no. 8, 1952), 
Peter translated Ugo Spiritus's arguments for the place 
of metaphysics in the modern world. He also wrote 
important articles on Hume, Reid, Ryle, and Scheler. He 
translated numerous classics of German philosophy. 



including works by Kant, Schelling, and Max Scheler 's 
book The Nature of Sympathy; he edited Augustus De 
Morgan's logical works, etc.; but it is for his Carrollian 
writings that Peter is remembered by most of us. His The 
Philosopher s Alice, subtitled "The Thinking Man's Guide 
toaMisunder- ^^^— «^^^^^^^« stood Nursery 
Classic", ^^^^^^J^^^l (^91^, reprint- 
ed 1983), re- ^Bf^^^'^l'^Bl ceived enthus- 
iastic reviews H^^K. •'^ j t i BB ^^"^ ^'^^^ ^^^' 
roll scholars [^^H|^> /'^^»^I^S ^^^ philosoph- 
ers. He dis- ^^^^^ ^\ UR tinguished be- 
tween "non- ^H^M^^gji^^E|l sense" and "ab- 
surdity", "put- ^^^V^I^HP^Hl ting Edward 
Lear in the ^^^B ^^L ^H former cate- 
gory and Car- HHb ^m VI roll solidly in 
the latter". Likewise in his 
Jabberwocky (Vol. 13, no. 3) article on Carroll parodies 
he offers a clear distinction between "parody" and "bur- 
lesque". Peter wrote wonderftil reviews of the important 
works of Carroll scholarship of the past decades. To cite 
just two examples, see his "Carroll Through the Pillar- 
Box" {Virginia Quarterly, Summer 1980) on Morton 
Cohen's edition of the letters and "The Carrollian Paper 
Chase" {English Language Notes, Dec. 1982) on Soar- 
ing with the Dodo. 

Noted as a superb raconteur, he gave many talks, 
with his distinctively animated style of delivery, to our 
Society, such as his memorable lecture delivered in 
Baltimore in 1990 on the nagging problems of the 
paternity of the pig baby and the genders of the animal 
denizens of Wonderland), and this was before gender 
studies became the darling child of academic critics. 

In one of his last publications, the entry on 
"Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge" for the Concise Routledge 
Encyclopedia of Philosophy (London: 2000) Peter says 
this about the two Alice books and The Hunting of the 
Snark: "Together with portions of his two-volume fairy- 
novel Sylvie and Bruno they were the only writings 
ostensibly for children to have attracted or deserved the 
notice of philosophers." We are most grateful Peter 
Lauchlan Heath was one of those philosophers. 

-August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

Adolph Green 

1 9 14 - October 24"^ 
Partner of Betty Comden in writing too many 
classic Broadway musicals, songs and screenplays to 
begin to recount, although one might start with On The 
Town, Bells Are Ringing, Wonderful Town, Peter Pan 
and Singin' in the Rain, he addressed the LCSNA in 
October, 1989, about his lifelong passion for Carroll. At 
his star-studded memorial at the Schubert Theater on 
December 3"*, the ceremony started with actor Kevin 
Kline reciting "Father William", a poem Mr. Green 
"recited whenever he could or wanted to". 



23 



Knavery 

[The "Knave of Arts", who wishes to remain otherwise anony- 
mous, is a creative contributor to the Yahoo Lewis Carroll eGroup. 
S/he has culled of few of his/her favorites for us.] 

1. "Talking of axes," said the Duchess, "chop off her head!" 
Alice glanced rather anxiously at the cook, to see if she meant 
to take the hint: but the cook was busily stirring the soup, and 
seemed not to be listening. . . 

Is the Duchess addressing the cook, or is she addressing 
Alice? The Duchess must have been annoyed by the cook's 
throwing things at her and the baby, so perhaps she is asking 
Alice to chop off the cook's head - or 
maybe the baby's head, if it really is a 
pig. Perhaps the Duchess wants to add 
the pig to the soup, in which case it 
would be "Pig and Pepper Soup". I no- 
tice that when one buys packages of 
mixed beans to make soup, the instruc- 
tions usually advise to add ham, or per- 
haps salt pork. However, one might 
object that the Duchess says "her," so 
she could not be talking about the baby, 
for Alice says "Oh, there goes his pre- 
cious nose!" But perhaps Alice was 
mistaken. Neither Alice nor the Duch- 
ess mentions its gender again. 




rather surprised at not being able to think of the word. "I 
mean to get under the - under the - under this, you know!" 
putting her hand on the trunk of the tree. What does it call 
itself, I wonder? I do believe it's got no name - why, to be sure 
it hasn't!" 

"The boys proved that you do not need to live in the country 
to commime with nature and that they had taken to heart his 
[H.G. Wells'] very sound advice that natural history was not 
simply the collecting of thmgs and certainly not the mere 
naming of them. In the Henly House School Magazine, H.G. 
Wells, aged twenty-three, criticized 'vituperative natural- 
ists with a classical bias' who insisted on calling a harmless 
sunflower, Helianthus annuus and 
fixing Lepus cuniculus on the inoffen- 
sive "bunny." [Ann Thwaite, A. A. Milne, 
Random House, 1990] 

6. The Mock Turtle sighed deeply, and 
drew the back of one flipper across his 
eyes. He looked at Alice and tried to 
speak, but, for a minute or two, sobs 
choked his voice. "Same as if he had a 
bone in his throat," said the Gryphon; 
and it set to work shaking him and 
punching him in the back. At last the 
Mock Turtle recovered his voice... 



7 must get this 



2. "It was the best butter," the March 

Hare meekly replied. "Yes, but some 

crumbs must have got in as well," the Hatter grumbled, "you 

shouldn't have put it in with the bread-knife." 



typewriter fixed. ' 



This implies that there was a butter-knife and a bread-knife. 
Proof that the English were civilized once, and perhaps still 
are. 

3. "And who are these?" said the Queen, pointing to the three 
gardeners who were lying round the rose-tree; for, you see, as 
they were lying on their faces, and the pattern on their backs 
was the same as the rest of the pack, she could not tell whether 
they were gardeners, or soldiers, or three of her own 
children. . .The Queen. . .said to the Knave, "Turn them over!" 
The Knave did so, very carefully, with one foot. 

Why did he use one foot, instead of his hands? Was he too 
stiff to bend? Or was he disdainful of gardeners? And he 
turned them over "very carefully" because they might have 
been the royal children - or soldiers. 

4. "Why is a raven like a writing desk?" 

"Come, the croaking raven doth bellow for revenge." Ham- 
let, Act III, Scene 2. CLD often pamphleteered against and 
satirized Dean Liddell's plans to reconstruct Christ Church 
Cathedral. 

5. She was rambling on in this way when she reached the wood: 
it looked very cool and shady. "Well, at any rate it's a great 
comfort," she said as she stepped under the trees, "after being 
so hot, to get into the - into the - into what?" she went on. 



This is a melodramatic, theatrical ges- 
ture. It is not an Anglo-Saxon attitude, 
which is only done when "happy." 
[TTLG, Ch.7] "Anglo-Saxon attitudes", 
showing figures with arms spread out, pahns up, are shown 
in The Caedmon Genesis c. 1000, which was exhibited at 
the Bodleian Library in 1863, and can be seen in Mavis 
Batey's The Adventures of Alice (1991), Ch.l2. 

7. "It's very provoking," Humpty Dumpty said after a long 
silence, looking away from Alice as he spoke, "to be called an 
egg - very!" Evidently Humpty Dumpty was very angry, though 
he said nothing for a minute or two. When he did speak again, 
it was in a deep growl. "It is a - most - provoking - thing," he 
said at last, "when a person doesn't know a cravat from a belt!" 

Humpty Dumpty follows a proper psychological rule for 
when one is in a heated argument - instead of calling Alice a 
name, he tells her what sort of feeling her remark provokes 
in him - so she will know how she made him feel. 
Of course, he then says she has "a stupid name". 

8. "I always thought they were fabulous monsters!" said the 
Unicorn. "Is it alive?" "It can talk," said Haigha, solemnly. 

I don't suppose they had talking dolls in Dodgson's day, so 
this may refer to puppets. When he still lived at the Rec- 
tory, as a youth "with a carpenter's help, he built a mari- 
onette theater, composed plays, and learned to manipulate 
the marionette for the presentations." [Cohen, Lewis Car- 
roll: A Biography, Ch.l] Is there a suggestion, contrary to 
Aristotle, that man is not the rational animal, but the talking 
animal? We know there can be quite a bit of difference. 



24 



C©J)f ^(©(©P^ Sc 



What the Carpenter Said 

Our own Angelica Shirley Carpenter's Lewis Car- 
roll: Through the Looking-Glass (A Lerner Biography), 
0-8225-0073-6, (Lerner Publications, 2003, $25) is a 
delightfully light yet comprehensive look at Carroll's life 
and works, written for young readers (ages 11-17; grades 
6-12). Of particular interest is the epilogue "Curiouser and 
Curiouser: 1 898-Present" which brings his legacy up to date. 

Parodies Lost (and Found!) 

Jabberland: A Whiffle Through the Tulgey Wood 
of "Jabberwocky " Imitations, with a fine introductory essay 
by our own Hilda Bohem and edited by (our own) Dayna 
McCausland, is a wild collection of two hundred or so 
parodies, from "Almamaterwocky" through "Zemowocky". 
Due to copyright issues the book will not be for sale and is 
available only to members of the LCSCanada. New U.S. 
members can join for us$16, international members us$18. 
Contact Dayna at sheerluck@sympatico.ca; P.O.Box 321, 
Erin, Ontario NOB ITO, Canada. Supplies are extremely 
limited. 

Love in Bloom 

Harold Bloom has a new book out with the title 
Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative 
Minds. Lewis Carroll merits six pages. Samples: "The 
second Alice book has a visionary otherness that I cannot 
locate in the first; there seems to me both aesthetic gain in 
sophistication, and aesthetic loss in exuberance, as you read 
from one book to the next." "The historical Alice Liddell 
was more Carroll's Dulcinea than his Beatrice..." 

The book is arranged along the lines of the Kabbal- 
istic Sefirot. (I presume that makes the pun in his subtitle 
deliberate.) Carroll falls under the tenth and final one, Mal- 
khut, "the kingdom". "I have relied upon its deep inwardness 
as an attribute, and have grouped under it ten male geniuses 
who franscend sexuality. Malkhut is, to me, the most fascin- 
ating of the Sefirot, since it displays divine immanence in 
the kingdom of this world." Having said that, Bloom then 
goes on to discuss little else of Carroll aside from his sexu- 
ality. 0446527173, $36. 

Call for Writers 

"We are currently seeking qualified writers to 
contribute an essay on Lewis Carroll to a new five-volume 
encyclopedia. The Grolier Encyclopedia of the Victorian 
Era is intended to provide complete coverage of the social, 
political, and intellectual landscape of the British- 
dominated world during the years of the reign of Queen 
Victoria, 1837-1901. The encyclopedia will contain 650 
signed entries, ranging in length from 500 to 4,000 words. 
If you are interested in contributing, please send an e-mail 
or letter briefly describing your qualifications; if those 
qualifications do not include significant publications, please 





include a sample of your writing on 
related topics." Tom and Sara Pen- 
dergast. Full Circle Editorial, 428 
Avenue J, Snohomish, WA 98290. 
360.568-2049; 815-371-2934 fax; 
fullc@gte.net. 

Cammarata Lucida 

Adele Cammarata has published Alice 
Underground (Fiabesca/Stampa Altemativa 2002, 88- 
7226-721-8, €10), which contains a facsimile of Carroll's 
manuscript and her own translation of it into Italian. The 
publisher's page is www.stampalternativa.it/catalogo/ 
fiabescayschede/fiab043.htm (the site is in Italian). 

She has also written about translating the Mouse's 
Tale (www.bokos.it/tails.pdf) and an article about other ^ff' 
Italian translations in InTRAlinea magazine (Vol.5, 2002, 
onlme at www.intralinea.it/vol5/alice/alice.htm). 

The Twain Shall Meet 

The original edition of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 
(1885) contained 174 illustrations by Edward W. Kemble, 
a young New York artist personally selected by Mark Twain. 
One of Michael Patrick Heam's footnotes (42.1) in The 
Annotated Huckleberry Finn (Norton, 2001) draws 
attention to two pictures, one in Chapter One and one in 
Chapter Eleven, reproduced below, with the comment that 
"No doubt the American artist was aware that John Tenniel 
drew a similar pair of pictures to illustrate Chapter 1 of 
TTLG, as the girl pierces through the mirror and the page." 




25 



What the Archbishop Found 

It looks, in fact, a lot like the early Macmillan 
Alices — a well-worn reddish antiquarian volume of exactly 
the same height and depth, with a gold stamp on the spine. 
The Reverend Doctor Havilland Le M. Chepmell's A Short 
Course of History was identified by Roger Lancelyn Green 
(in his edition of the Diaries, Oxford, 1 954) as the source 
of the "driest thing I know" quoted by the Mouse after 
swimming to shore from the Pool of Tears. The quotation 
is the beginning of Chepmell's "House of Normandy" 
chapter, pp. 143-44, and famously begins "William the 
Conqueror, whose cause was favoured by the Pope..." and 
ends in the middle of the sentence "But the insolence of his 
Normans — ", after mentioning Edwin and Morcar, the earls 
of Mercia and Northumbria. 

(Edwin and Morcar's sister Lucia was one of 
Dodgson's ancestors, Green tells us, as he also enlightens 
us that their grandmother, married to Leorfric III, Earl of 
Mercia, was none other than the legendary, but very real. 
Lady Godiva.) 

A Short Course of History First Series: J. Greece. 
II. Rome. III. England was published in London by Whittaker 
and Co. in 1848, although Green gives the date as 1862, an 
error that has been promulgated throughout Carrollian 
studies, including all editions of The Annotated Alice. 
Presumably Green had a later edition at hand (the seventh 
edition is dated 1859). It is, indeed, the dullest and driest 
read imaginable, and one wonders if it had another 
association — could it have been the very book her sister 
was reading on the bank, "without pictures or conversations", 
which put Alice to sleep? Often elements from the waking 
world find their way into dreams: her sister's dream at the 
end of the Adventures mentions rattling teacups changing 
into tinkling sheep-bells, the Queen's cries to the voice of 
the shepherd-boy, and the other "queer noises" into the 
"confiised clamour of the busy farm-yard". 

Was this the soporific that caused Alice's dream? 
We'll never know, but the possibility is there. . .^ :^ - 




^eV^j^ 



' EmUySlrangaxaii e2001 eaiiAietlifcto 



This fine sticker is from the "Emily the Strange" kiddy ghoul phenomenon. 
You can get a pack of 5 randomly chosen stickers for $8 at www.emilystrange. 
com/beware/accessories/stickerpak.cfm, but this may not be among them. 




Carrollian 
Notes 



Announcements 



Angelica Carpenter's "Literary Gardens: Children's Litera- 
ture arid Garden Tour" of England which had been scheduled 
to take place May 17-26, 2003 has been postponed indef- 
initely. A brochure had been sent to all members of this 
Society. 

Due to the paucity of submissions, and requests from some 
students, the deadline for the Stan Marx Fund Collegiate 
Essay Contest has been extended to March 31, 2003. 

[Sic], [sic], [sic] 

"Malice in Wonderland?" in TIME magazine, October 7*, 
2002, reviewing the "Dreaming in Pictures" show and 
catalog as well as The Lives of the Muses, is the epitome of 
poor research and writing. It contains a classic boner begin- 
ning "Lewis Carroll, whose real name was Arthur Dodg- 
son,..." 



Under "white-rabbit" in The Forgotten English Word-a-day 
Calendar by Jeffrey Kacirk (entry for November 26, 2002): 
"On this date in 1864, Oxford mathematician... offered a 
handwritten copy... to Alice Liddel. He published his soon- 
to-be-classic in 1865, but in its first year, the book sold 
fewer than fifty copies, due in part to unfavorable reviews, 
such as this one in Children's Books: 'We fancy that any 
real child might be more puzzled than enchanted by this stiff, 
overwrought story.'" 

Steven Heller, in The New York Times Book Review (No- 
vember 17, 2002): "Sometimes the story demands that type, 
or lettering, simulate the sound, mood and even physical 
fraits of words and phrases... This is nothing new. In child- 
ren's books it dates back to Lewis Carroll's Through the 
Looking Glass ( 1 872), in which the description of a mouse's 
tail was suggestively typeset in a curlicue shape at the end 
of a paragraph." [Even ignoring the missing hyphen, the 
Mouse's Tale was of course in AW, not TTLG. Further- 
more, the text of the poem is not even close to a "descrip- 
tion of a mouse's tail".] 

Salom^, Salome, Bologna 

An article in the New York Times on December 3"*, 
entitled "Play? Opera? A Challenge to Daunt the Eye and 
Ear", reviewing a new avant-garde production of Oscar 
Wilde's Salome, refers to Robert Wilson's staging of 
Richard Strauss' opera based on the play, "...at La Scala in 
Milan 1 5 years ago, Mr. Wilson had a good cast, conducted 
by Kent Nagano, but his Salome, the Spanish soprano 



26 



Montserrat Caballe, combined breathtaking vocal beau- 
ty... with unseductive girth. Mr. Wilson's solution [to the 
problem of Salomes seductive dance], which didn't sit at 
all well with the singers, was to costume them in all-black 
dress of the sort high society might have worn at the time 
of the opera's composition in 1905, and then pen them onto 
a platform... Onstage, students from New York Univer- 
sity... acted out the drama. Mr. Wilson's conceits including 
splitting the characters among several actors and morphing 
the Salome tale with that of Alice in Wonderland. When 
the bored princess makes her entrance, wandering out onto 
the palace veranda, Mr. Wilson had her spinning, in an Alice- 
like dress designed by Gianni Versace. As embodied by the 
young and beautiful Jennifer Rohn, this image of Salome 
falling down the rabbit hole was a vision to remember 
lifelong." 

Night of the Jabberwock 

If you're ever in Monterey, California, an intriguing 
place for Carrollians to visit is the Jabberwock Inn, just a 
few blocks from the city's famous aquarium and Cannery 
Row. The inn has been written about before in Knight Letters 
52 and 59, but here's an update, based on a recent weekend 
visit for my wife's birthday (and my unbirthday). 

Originally built in 1 9 1 1 , the Jabberwock Inn was a 
large private home that has been converted into a bed-and- 
breakfast retreat. The house has seven bedrooms, most with 
views over Monterey Bay, and each room is named after 
some aspect of the poem: Wabe, Mimsy, Tulgey Wood, 
Toves, Brillig, Mome Rath, and Borogove. The facilities 
include a lovely half-acre garden (with fountains and a pond), 
free parking on a mossy cobblestone lot, and a lovely dining 
room and living room (with an ^W^ chess set and a few other 
touches). The inn's best feature is the charming glassed-in 
sun porch where tasty hors d'oeuvres and wine are served 
in the early evening, and chocolate-chip cookies and milk 
are available before bedtime. The sun porch also has a 
backwards clock straight out of Wonderland (we did not, 
however, grow any younger over the weekend). 

The Jabberwock Inn is located at 598 Laine Street, 



Monterey, California 93940, and the phone numbers are 
(831) 372-4777 or (888) 428-7253 (toll free). The inn also 
has an informative Web site at www.jabberwockinn.com 
where you can see pictures of each of the rooms and other 
facilities. Room prices range from $125 to $265 per night, 
and the three priciest rooms each include a king-size bed, a 
fireplace, and a Jacuzzi. The innkeepers are Joan and John 
Kiliany. I'm not sure whom I spoke to, but when I mentioned 
that I was a member of the Lewis Carroll Society of North 
America, for all the reaction I got I might as well have told 
them that I have a Honda. 

While my wife and I enjoyed our stay there, 
Carrollians may find the inn a little disappointing, with the 
Alician angle being mostly a marketing ploy — the Alice 
connection is not very deep. Comfy Victorian quaintnesses 
abound, but they are not necessarily Carrollian. A handful 
of Carroll books hide on a shelf by a living-room fireplace 
(along with Steinbeck books, since this is also Steinbeck 
country) but there seemed to be fewer such books than when 
I visited some ten years or so before. A few Alice decor- 
ations appear here and there around the house, some kitschy, 
some less so (I liked the chess set best). A small sign 
announcing breakfast was written backwards, and it was 
amusing to wonder what "Jabberwock Shampoo" might do 
to my hair. Breakfast was very tasty, but I could have done 
with more (maybe I should have had more of the cookies 
and milk the evening before?). 

The Jabberwock Inn (below) is certainly a curiosity, 
and if you're in the neighborhood you might want to stay or 
perhaps knock on the door to visit for an hour. Carroll 
aficionados will find little depth or originality, but those 
who enjoy a good bed-and-breakfast experience are sure to 
delight in their visit. 

-Michael Welch 





27 



Heart of the City by Mark TatuUi 



Articles 

"The Limerick is furtive and mean; You 
must keep her in close quarantine / Or 
she sneaks to the slums / And quickly 
becomes / Disorderly, drunk and ob- 
scene" by David Stewart, in Smithson- 
ian, September 2002, traces the 
history of the limerick from "Hickory, 
dickory, dock" to the present, and prints 
Carroll's "His sister, called Lucy O' 
Finner" effort, without mentioning that 
it was written when CLD was 13 and 
published for the amusement of his 
family, in the magazine called "Useful 
and Instructive Poetry". 

Diane DeBlois' "Ephemera Bits" col- 
umn in the October 2002 issue of Book 
Source Monthly (Vol.18 no.7) is en- 
titled "Alice Through the Letter Box" 
and discusses The Wonderland Postage 
Stamp Case. 

"H.H.Munro: A Life of Irony" by Jes- 
se F. Knight, in Firsts: The Book Col- 
lector's Magazine, September 2002, 
Vol. 12 no. 7, discusses his series of 
AW satires for the Westminster Gaz- 
ette (released in book form as The West- 
minster Alice in 1 902). 

Mojo magazine, December 2002, 
awarded "White Rabbit" first place on 
the top 100 drug songs of all time. But 
more interestingly, they discuss the 
song's Spanish influences, especially 
Ravel's Bolero. Grace, untrue to her 
name, is pictured with a certain finger 
raised. Slick! 

Andrew Hall's "Edmund Blampied: Art- 
ist and Illustrator" in Book and Maga- 
zine Collector, No. 225, Dec. 2002, 
shows Blampied's cover for Thomas 
Nelson's 1917 ^fF edition (with four 
illustrations by Harry Rountree). 
"Blampied's signature is ahnost cut off 
the bottom of the cover, and it may not 
be widely recognized that it is by him." 

"Nothing On: Sex and the Victorians" 
by Peter Schjeldahl in The New Yorker, 
September 30, 2002, reviews the "Ex- 
posed: The Victorian Nude" show at the 
Tate Gallery including "a stupefying 




Cof^f^esbondle^nts 



hand-colored photograph by Lewis 
Carroll of a young girl posed as a Titian 
Venus..." 

Douglas Nickel's Dreaming in Pic- 
tures (San Francisco Museum of Mod- 
ern Art and Yale University Press, 
2002, $39), the catalog of his excellent 
show of Carroll photographs at the San 
Francisco Museum of Modem Art, was 
favorably reviewed by Tessa DeCarlo 
in the New York Times, Aug. 11, 2002. 

The Washington Post 's The Style Invi- 
tational contest for "Portmanteau- 
tapping" (Oct. 20, 2002) challenged 
readers to create new portmanteau 
words in the tradition of Lewis Carroll. 
Some sample published entries include 
the following: ''Anecdotard: an old 
person who keeps telling the same bor- 
ing stories; Dachshundheit: what you 
say after a dog passes gas." 

Books 

The Oldest Music Room in Europe: A 
Record of Eighteenth-Century Enter- 
prise at Oxford by John H. Mee (The 
Bodley Head; John Lane; 1911) discus- 
ses a "Musical Interlude" written in 
1780 whose characters, named Twee- 
dledum and Kit Tweedledee, figure in 
several pasquinades referring to a con- 
tretemps between two Oxonian pro- 
fessors. 

The Origin of Minds: Evolution, Uni- 
queness, and the New Science of the 
Self by Peggy LaCerra and Roger Bing- 
ham uses Carroll's caterpillar "to ex- 
plain how monoamines globally cali- 
brate your intelligence system". The 
reference appears in Chapter 5, "An- 
swering the Caterpillar's Question: 
What Size Do You Want to Be?". 

A Book of Books, a collection of Abel- 
ardo Morell's photographs, contains 
selections from his earlier AW book 
(AX 59, p. 14). Reviewed in The New 
York Times Book Review. Bulfinch 
Press; 0821227696. 

28 



The Mythology of Cats: Feline Leg- 
end and Lore Through the Ages by 
Gerald and Loretta Hausman has a sec- 
tion on Guess Who. St. Martin's Press, 
1998, 0312186339; Berkeley Pub- 
lishing Group, 2000, 0425174492. 

Through the Eyes of a Child: An Intro- 
duction to Children's Literature (6* 
Edition) by Donna E. Norton, and Saun- 
dra E. Norton; Prentice Hall, 2002, 
013042207X; with CD-ROM en- 
closed, contains an article on teaching 
Alice by our own Monica Edinger. 

Llandudno, Queen of Welsh Resorts 
by Ivor Wyime Jones raises the ques- 
tion as to whether Alice Liddell had a 
secret rendezvous there with Prince 
Leopold in 1873. ISBN 1 84306 048 
5 , £ 1 5 . Landmark Publishing Ltd. , Ash- 
bourne Hall, Cokayne Avenue, Ash- 
bourne, Derbyshire DE6 lEJ, U.K.; 
01335 347349; landmark@clara.net; 
www.landmarkpublishing.co.uk. 

The Crimson Petal and the White by 
Michel Faber, the story of a prostitute 
set in 1870s London, contains many 
Carrollian references. Harcourt, 
015100692X. 

Sparrow Through the Hall: A Pil- 
grimage Through British Christianity 
by our own Charlie Lovett contains 
many (indexed) references to Carroll 
and to various members of the LCSNA 
and the LCS(U.K.). $24, 0971977496. 
www.aznet.co.uk/clovett/. 

The Lives of the Muses: Nine Women 
and the Artists They Inspired by Fran- 
cine Prose (Harper Collins, $26) fo- 
cuses on Alice Liddell as one of her 
studies of modern "muscology". 
Reviewed in the New York Times, Sept. 
22, 2002, and numerous other news- 
papers and journals. In the Nov. 24, 
2002 San Francisco Chronicle, for 
example, Heidi Benson writes: "As 
Prose went on to discover at the library, 
Liddell was no mouse, no onetime 
muse. Being a muse was, for her, as for 
others, an irresistible modus operandi. 
'I found out that she'd been involved 
with John Ruskin and had a love affair 



with Queen Victoria's son,' she said. 
"Why is it that this isn't common 
knowledge?'" [Why indeed?] Her 
research used only conventional and 
outdated sources and hence her essay 
produces nothing new. 

AW is one of the 26 works discussed 
in Melanie Wentz's Once Upon a Time 
in Great Britain: A Travel Guide to 
the Sights and Settings of Your Fav- 
ourite Children 's Stories, (St. Martin's 
Griffin, $16). A brief biography of 
each author precedes the travel guide 
account of the settings of the tales. 

Alastair Gray's The Book of Prefaces 
(Bloomsbury £17) an anthology of 
prolegomena, includes the Preface to 
The Hunting of the Snark. 

Random House's Modem Library ed- 
ition of AW&TTLG, with an intro- 
duction by A.S. Byatt and notes by 
Lynne Vallone, is now available. $9 
trade paperback. 0-375-76138-1. 
Byatt's new novel A Whistling Woman 
(Knopf) also contains many Alician re- 
ferences. 

Alles uber Alice, a new German trans- 
lation of Martin Gardner's fma\ Annot- 
ated Alice has just appeared with ex- 
tended notes by Friedhelm [ "Mome "?] 
Rathjen, who also translated Gardner's. 
Europa Verlag, 3-203-75950-0, €30. 
The text of the books was translated by 
Guenther Flemming. 

The National Review Treasury of 
Classic Children 's Literature is a com- 
pendium of stories from St. Nicholas 
magazine (1874- 1930s) "personally 
selected by William F. Buckley, Jr." 
designed to "take you back to a more 
innocent time", and includes "Bruno's 
Revenge". Obtainable at the moment 
only through National Review at www. 
nationalreview.com/store/book_ 
treasury.asp, but will be in bookstores 
eventually. 

Adrain Mitchell's stage adaptation of 
AW/TTLG. $17. Communications 
Group; 1840022566. 

Photography: A Cultural History 
(Abrams, 2002) by Mary Warner Mar- 
ien discusses Carroll's "Beggar-Maid". 



In The History of Writing: Hieroglyph 
to Multimedia (Flammarion, 2002), 
edited by Anne-Marie Christin, a chap- 
ter called "Typographies for Children" 
contains a facsimile of the mouse's tale 
with a short discussion. The book was 
first published in French in 2001. 

See the USA: The Art of the American 
Travel Brochure by John Margolies and 
Eric Baker (Chronicle Books, 1999) 
contains a color illusfration of the co- 
ver of "Alice's Adventures in the New 
Wonderland: Yellowstone National 
Park". 

Young Korean artist Suzy Lee's mix- 
ture of flat drawings and realistic pho- 
tographs makes a handsome picture- 
book, with minimal text in Italian and 
English. Alice in Wonderland, Corra- 
ini, 2002, 88-87942-27-7. €16. www. 
corraini.com. 

Performances Noted 

Southbend, Indiana's Civic Theatre put 
on a production oi AW directed by 
Jewel Abram-Copenhaver, July 5-14. 

In repertoire at the LID A Project in 
Denver CO, and also at the 2002 New 
York International Fringe Festival 
(August 2002), is a very PoMo "Alice". 
"Based on the mission of the exper- 
iments, Alice has become the first 
vehicle to experiment with the 
moments of intersection between man 
and machine, digital and organic, good 
and evil." Using various writings of 
Lewis Carroll as a starting point, a very 
polished ensemble enters murmuring 
a text that is broken down to letters and 
builds back into words. They then flow 
through a nonlinear sequence which 
roams from direct quotes to sketches 
enacting websites you might/might not 
connect with the Alician themes 
(militia? meat? porn?) to anagrams 
based on the letters that spell Lewis 
Carroll. See www.good-evil.org/. 

Theafre X of Milwaukee brought to the 
stage a new adaptation of The Hunting 
of the Snark conceived by Kurt Hart- 
wig, Sept. 28-Oct. 20, 2002. Hartwig's 
direction possesses "a freshness, deft- 
ness and visual sense seldom seen", in 
the words of the Milwaukee Sentinel. 
Mary Kababik is the ringmaster in this 

29 



production which "begins with four 
black-clad actors dragging a small army 
of trunks and suitcases onto the stage. 
Lids and covers are opened, and a mena- 
gerie of puppets emerge... the Broker 
[one of the puppets] is portrayed as an 
abacus with feet." 

Vancouver's Community Theater pre- 
sented /I fF on Oct. 11-12. 

Brian Russo's "avowedly unsent- 
imental" theatrical version oi AW zi 
Franklin and Marshall College in Lan- 
caster PA (Oct. 23-Nov. 3). 

The October 23, 2002 Angelo State 
University (San Angelo, TX) Rampage 
notes that ASU's Concert Chorale will 
present "Halloween Spooktacular II: 
The Nightmare Before Christmas" on 
Oct. 29, to include an "energetic" set- 
ting of "Jabberwocky". 

"Lewis Carroll: Six Impossible Things 
Before Breakfast" an adaptation of the 
books by M.Lee Potts and Marilyn 
Hetzel, presented by "The Next Stage" 
in late October in State College PA, 
was ". . .a tasty blend of pantomime and 
Japanese theater styles". 

Akrostichon- Wortspiel (Acrostic- Word 
play) by Korean composer Unsuk Chin 
was commissioned by the Gaudeamus 
Foundation, and received its premiere 
in London on September 8, 1993 with 
George Benjamin conducting. The 
piece consists of seven nonsense 
poems from The Endless Story by 
Michael Ende and TTLG. The Guard- 
ian (Oct 29, 2002) reviews a recent 
performance by the Birmingham Con- 
temporary Music Group with soprano 
Nicole Tibbies: "Chin's Acrostic Word 
play was totally beguiling... a tour de 
force of vocal technique and sensuous, 
glistening textures, in which a collision 
of tuning systems gives the music a 
feeling of fragility and ambivalence." 

Alice in the Shadows, Maria Bod- 
mann's Balinese puppetry "psychedelic 
Rock n' Roll shadow play" at the War- 
ner Grand Theater in San Pedro CA, 
October 30. 

Daryl Bjoza's ballet /i^F will be seen at 
Cincinnati's School for Creative and 
Performing Arts, May 2-4, 2003. 



Cyberspace 

The Alice in Wonderland Collectors 
Network has risen from a deep sleep 
and is now on the Internet. At http:// 
collectalice.home.att.net/. 

Keith Sheel has been appointed the new 
moderator of the Yahoo Lewis Carroll 
e-group, replacing Mike Leach. 

The Lewis Carroll Society of Australia 
is alive and well, despite the loss of its 
website. The site for the Lewis Carroll 
fonts has similarly vanished away. 

"And Aholibamah bare Jeush, and 
Jaalam, and Korah: these were the 
borogoves... " Huh? "Fun With Markov 
Chains" at www.eblong.com/zarf7mar- 
kov/ is a scrambling algorithm that 
takes AW as a base text and mixes it in 
with Hamlet in one case and the Bible 
books of Genesis and Revelation in an- 
other. The programs are downloadable 
if you want to mix'n'match your own. 

The new International Children's Dig- 
ital Library (www.icdlbooks.org), 
which premiered on November 20 at 
the Library of Congress to considerable 
hoopla, includes a beautifully digitized 
AW (Samuel Gabriel, 1916), but good 
luck finding it. As yet, there is no 
searching by title, author, or keyword. 
The site is highly resource-intensive: 
don't bother with this if you don't have 
a high-speed internet connection and 
plenty of available RAM. 

For the "Best Fictional Earnings Re- 
lease Contest" sponsored by Gregory 
FCA, a leading investor and public re- 
lations firm, entrants were instructed 
to pick their favorite infamous public 
company and rewrite its last annual 
earnings release in the style of a fav- 
orite author. Third prize ($100) went 
to Joanne Eglash, a developer of web- 
based educational software from 
Scotts Valley, CA, who wrote about 
Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia in 
the style of Lewis Carroll. "'Curiouser 
and even more curiouser,' said Martha, 
as she stepped cleanly and in a most 
organized manner through the beau- 
tifully polished and clear Looking 
Glass... For investors who prefer a 
summary, please note that it was always 
'brillig' this year. Martha and her staff 
successfully groomed the slithy toves. 



despite their insistence on gimbling in 
the wabes..." See www.gregoryfca. 
com/irp_gfca08 1 902c.htm. 

The Pathe archive of 3,500 hours of 
news bulletins, starting in 1902 and 
ending in 1970, is online at www.british 
pathe.com. It includes a film (circa 
1950?) of 13 -year-old Ann Stephens 
(who made a gramophone recording of 
AW to benefit the children of Great 
Ormond Street Hospital) visiting the 
sick children there. This site was free 
when accessed but will probably begin 
charging for access soon. 

A John Tenniel Home Page at http:// 
oufcnt5.open.ac.uk/~gill_stoker/ 
tenniel.htm is maintained by Gill Sto- 
ker. There is a fine critical essay on 
Tenniel's work on the Alice books. 

All eight known illustrations of the 
"Wasp in a Wig" chapter have been 
collected at www.english-usage.com/ 
WaspInAWig.htm. 

Renold Rose's slideshow of his 
photographs inspired by AW at http:// 
hot-buttered.com/photo/alice.htm. 

"Nabokov as [AW] Translator" by Leigh 
Kimmel at www.geocities.com/ 
Athens/3682/nabokov2.html. 

A page about Dali's AW with all the 
images at www.dalibooks.com/Alice. 
html. 

A page about Steadman's Alice work at 
www.gonzo.org/hst/ralph/books/alice 
com.html. 

Convenient portal to e-texts of Car- 
roll's works: http://home.earthlink. net/ 
-Ifdean/carroll/. 

Magnifique Carroll portal en Fran- 
gais: http://ibelgique.ifrance.com/ 
Carroll/. 

Magnifico Carroll portal en Espanol: 
www.expreso.co.cr/alicia/. 

Academia 

A program was held at the California 
School Library Association's annual 
conference in Sacramento CA, Nov. 1 3 : 
"'What is the use of a book without 
pictures?' thought Alice: Selecting and 
Using Graphic Novels to Promote 
Literacy". 

30 



The Rosenbach Museum and Library in 
Philadelphia is the proud new owners 
of the collection of papers belonging 
to Alice Hargreaves sold at the Soth- 
eby's auction in June, 2001. It includes 
about 80 items documenting her role 
in the sale of her manuscript copy of 
AAuG in 1928 for £15,400. 

Angelica Carpenter's slide-illustrated 
lecture on her book (see p. 25) at the 
Unitarian Universalist Church of Fres- 
no (CA) on Friday, December 6*. 

Auctions 

The 'Private Press Books, Illustrated 
and Children's Books and Related 
Drawings' section of the Sotheby's sale 
on 12 December 2002 contained a few 
Carroll items (lots 452-455), including 
an apothecary's ledger with entries 
relating to C.L. Dodgson and his family. 

PBA Galleries has an 1866 Alice for 
sale with a presentation drawing by 
John Tenniel of the Mad Hatter. Details 
athttp://ww^.pbagalleries.com/search/ 
item.php?anr= 122931. This was in a 
live/electronic auction on October 
20th, but did not sell. Estimate: us$30- 
to $40,000. 

Media 

Many have commented on the AW 
influences in the new anime Sen To 
Chihiro No Kamikakushi ("Spirited 
Away") by Hayao Miyazaki. Distributed 
by Disney, it is the first animation film 
in 50 years to win the top prize, the 
Golden Bear, at the Berlin Fibn Fest- 
ival. 

In the recent movie Tadpole (Sig- 
oumey Weaver, etc.), the Central Park 
A W sculpture is seen in the foreground 
of a scene. The conversation in the 
background, oddly enough, concerned 
a love affair between a 40-year-old 
woman and a high-school sophomore 
(male). "Whether the director was 
intentionally referencing Carroll's sup- 
posed sexuality is questionable, how- 
ever: the sexes were switched. The dor- 
mouse was prominent. Highly recom- 
mended." -Matt Demakos 

A BBC "Afternoon Play" called "Lewis 
Carroll's Adventures in Russia" broad- 
cast on July 13 "dramatises the only 



foreign trip AlVs creator ever made". 

"Alice Underground", a psychedelex- 
perimental film by Robert E. Lee set 
in the New York club scene, uses only 
a still camera. Video copies ($20) are 
available, which include "The Effect of 
Living Backward: The Making of 
'Alice Underground'", www.angelfire. 
com/film/aliceunderground/index. 
html. 

The British Film Institute has con- 
firmed that it is planning to release 
Jonathan Miller's legendary AW 
teleplay (1967) next Spring on (PAL- 
format) video and DVD. Stay tuned for 
further news. 

Exhibitions 

In "Faster than the Eye" (July 27- 
Oct.l3) at the Verba Buena Center for 
the Arts in San Francisco, Argentinian 
artist Leandro Erlich's installation "El 
Living" seemed to be an innocuous 
full-size living room. There was a large 
mirror on one wall and what seemed 
an identical one next to it. It was, in 
fact, a window into a room exactly like 
the one you were in, only all the objects 
were reversed. Somewhat discon- 
certing, but at least viewers knew how 
Alice felt. 

An albumen print of Lewis Carroll's 
photograph of "Margaret Morrell 
Sleeping", circa 1873 pace Edward 
Wakeling, was featured in a show on 
dreaming at Japan's Kawamura 
Memorial Museum of Art. 

Mary Kline-Misol, whose work was 
featured in AX 66 , exhibited her Alice 
paintings at the Blue Gallery in Kansas 
City MO in October, along with simi- 
larly-inspired works by William Rain- 
ey. See an online review at www.pitch. 
com/issues/2002-10-24/art. html/1/ 
index.html. 

Guy Jacqmin, a French artist and the 
founder of the "Alice Still Alive" group 
of plasticians and sculptors that gathers 
about forty French artists inspired by 
Carroll and his work is organizing, for 
the fifth consecutive year, an exhibition 
this December in Paris. This year's 
celebrates Sainte Alice of the Roman 
Catholic calendar. "The main theme this 
year will be a confrontation between 



AW and the Book of the Wonders of the 
World, one of the finest manuscripts 
in the collection of the Duke of Bur- 
gundy, Jean sans Peur (1371-1419), 
who had commissioned for it some of 
the greatest artists of his time to 
illustrate Marco Polo's journeys to the 
East." http://perso.wanadoo.fr/alice 
stillalive/ {en Frangais, naturelle- 
ment). 

Grace Slick, the rock singer who 
thought that the White Knight talked 
backwards, has two portfolios of prints 
for sale, "Mad Tea Party" and "Through 
the Looking-Glass". The prints are also 
for sale individually. Contact the 
Fingerhut Gallery at 690 Bridgeway, 
Sausalito CA 94965; www.fingerhutart. 
com/slick. htm; 415.331-7225; fgsal 
@aol.com. (There are Fingerhut Gal- 
leries in Carmel, La Jolla, and Laguna 
Beach CA as well.) 

Things 

Peter Weever's illustrations {'"vignet- 
tes") from his \9%9 AW (Philomel 
Books U.S.; Random House U.K.) on 
http://peter.weevers.free. fr/. Many of 
the originals are for sale (£60- £400). 
Contact peter.weevers@wanadoo.fr. 

Muldoon Elder has written two XXX- 
rated parodies of "Father William" — 
one gay, one straight — involving the 
''eminence grise Pere Joseph" and 
Cardinal Richelieu. He will e-mail 
copies to anyone of legal age who 
requests one. info@vorpalgallery.com. 

Singer Aimee Mann's new CD "Lost in 
Space" contains "Humpty Dumpty". 

Wolfiewock's Tenniel-based "'3-D' 
pictures ($13) are composed of layers 
of inked acetate (similar to a sericel) 
over a black and white background. The 
multiple layers create the appearance 
of depth." http://users.erols.com/ 
wolfie 1 /awpics.htm. 

Lynn Hanson's AW promotional pain- 
ting, $400. www.streetcredart.com/ 
generic.html?pid=l 88. 

Margaret Davis' "Beware", calligraphed 
and illustrated excerpt from "Jabber- 
wocky", in an open edition linoleum 
block print. $20. 282 1 Truman Avenue, 
Oakland CA, 94605; margaret@flow- 



inglass.com; (510) 569-0437; www. 
flowinglass.com/art/beware.html. 

Carol Harper's primitive /4W^ panels of 
"pyrography [woodburning] and acry- 
lics on pine" ($125). www.sasquatch. 
com/~mars/CHILD/Chil.html#alice. 

Vladimir Verechagin's AW etching 
($200). www.picassomio.com/art/ 

1772/en/. 

Mitchell Zwick's AW sculptures, 
fountains, and mirrors at www.looking 
glasshouse.com/. 

Australian artist Jo Tuck's (mixed 
media on canvas) AW suite at http:// 
www.jotuck.com/gallery2.htm. 

Erinn Larsen's .4 fF suite (oil on linen) 
at www.billburg.com/artists/elee/ 
12.cfm. 

Rita Robinson's ^4^ glassworks at 
www.freshfrozenglass.com/. 

Jacqueline Dowling's Mad Tea Party in 
polymer clay ($675) at www.thejanad. 
com/comehither.htm. 

Lyudmila Rodionova's Russian lacquer 
box ($275) at www.sunbirds.com/ 
lacquer/box/992022. 

New from Disney's Halloween 2002 
catalog: Tweedledum and -dee cos- 
tumes in adult sizes and a corre- 
sponding Alice in kids'. Their Holiday 
Preview 2002 issue has a Cheshire Cat 
watch ($45) and a set of A ^resin orna- 
ments in a bound storybook box ($32). 
Their Winter 2002 has a Radko® glass 
Alice ornament ($38) and a Cheshire 
Cat "fleece tunic" - a Mock Turtleneck, 
of course ($32.50). 

Ceramicist Paul Cardew's new 2002 
catalog (see also KL 66 p.20) has an 
entire section called "Cardew in Won- 
derland" with tea sets, tea pots, salt & 
pepper shakers and other items in lim- 
ited editions. Contact Cardew Design 
North America, Inc. at RO.Box 3989, 
Orange CA 92857; (877) 9teapot or 
(714)685.6854;~6914fax;www.card- 
ewdesign.com. 

Bridge Records has just released "An 
Irving Fine Celebration at the Library 
of Congress". It contains his playful 
1942 musical setting of "Father Wil- 
liam". See www.bridge records.com. 



31 



A fine dramatic "all-star" production of 
AW from NPR affiliate KCRW in Santa 
Monica CA stars Harry Shearer, Vin- 
essa Shaw (as Alice), Michael York, 
Rhea Perlman, Malcokn Mc Dowell, 
Hector Elizondo, Orson Bean, and 
Elliot Gould. You can listen to it on the 



radio at a number of stations in South- 
em California (listed on their website) 
or over the Internet (ditto) on Christ- 
mas Eve and New Year's Eve from 2 to 
4 p.m., or you can purchase the 2-CD 
set for $50. www. KCRW.com; (888) 
600-KCRW. 



Awards 

The New York Times Book Review, 
December 8th, 2002. Congratulations 
to Taylor & Wakeling and Doug Nick- 
el! Both Lewis Carroll, Photographer 
and Dreaming in Pictures were named 
(together) as one of the twelve best 
photography books of the year. Mak- 
ing thirteen, when you think about it. 



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For help in preparing this issue thanks are due to: Earl Abbe, Fran Abeles, Joel Birenbaum, Llisa Demetrios Burstein, 
Sandor Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Matt Demakos, Devra Kunm, Lauren Harman, August Imholtz, Clare Imholtz, 
Janet Jurist, Hugues Lebailly, Stephanie Lovett, Lucille Posner, Jenifer Ransom, Andrew Sellon, Alan Tannenbaum, 
Alison Tannenbaum, Edward Wakelmg, Cindy, Charlotte, & Nick Watter, Germaine Weaver, and Sue Welsch. 

Knight Letter is the official newsletter of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. It is published several times 
a year and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be addres- 
sed to the Secretary, P.O.Box 204, Napa CA 94559. Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 (regular) and $50 (sustain- 
ing). Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, Box 2006, Mill Valley CA 94942. 

President: Alan Tannenbaum, tannenbaum@mindspring.com Secretary: Cindy Watter, hedgehog@napanet.net 
Vice-President and Knight Letter Editor: Mark Burstein, wrabbit@worldpassage.net 
Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: www.lewiscarroll.org 



32 ^ Since this is issue LXX, it's XXL!!